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Full text of "Coffee : a monograph of the economic species of the genus Coffea L."

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BOOK 633.7.C42 c. 1 

CHENEY # COFFEE MONGRAPH OF 

ECONOMIC SPECIES OF GENUS COFFEA 



3 T1S3 DDDESBMfl h 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/coffeemonographoOOchen 



COFFEE 




PLATE 1: COFFEA ARABIC A L. 



This species is the principal source of the commercial coffee-beans. 
Illustration: — A branch, bearing flowers and fruits. 



COFFEE 

A Monograph of the Economic 
Species of the Genus Coffea L 



RALPH 



BY 

HOLT 



CHENEY 



M.A., M.S., Sc.D. (Harvard), Assistant Professor of 
Biology, Washington Square College, New York University 




THE NEW YORK UNIVERSITY PRESS 



32 WAVERLY PLACE 



NEW i'ORK CITY 



1925 



r\ A ^ 



COPYRIGHT 1925 BY NEW YORK UNIVERSITY 



THE NEW YORK UNIVERSITY PRESS 
ARTHUR HUNTINGTON NASON, Ph.D., Director 



/ '^ 5~ ?7 



Printed in the United States of America by 

J. J. LITTLE AND IVES COMPANY, NEW YORK 



TO 

MY FATHER AND MOTHER 



PREFACE 

'T^ HE present work is a monographic presentation of the economic 
-*- species of the genus Coffea L. The treatment of coffee pre- 
sented here is an endeavor to include the systematic, economic, and 
cultural discussions which are indispensable to modern economic 
studies. Part I is a scientific discussion of the botany of coffee. 
Part II is an economic discussion of coffee including production and 
consumption data, types, preparation, facts concerning the chemistry, 
and the past and present adulteration of coffee. In concluding this 
part, a summary is given of the other caffeine-yielding plants, — 
their distribution and use. The cultural treatment of coffee is given 
in the form of two appendices presenting an ethnological and his- 
torical account of coffee and coffee-houses. The work includes 
eighty-four illustrations, a chronological chart for the use of coffee 
as a beverage throughout the countries of the world, and an exten- 
sive bibliography including economic and cultural references. 

Research pertaining to the economic Rubiales, in the Department 
of Economic Botany of Harvard University, emphasized the fact 
that coffee, the best known and one of the most important plants of 
the group, had never been adequately investigated. Although there 
is abundant literature in regard to the use of the beverage and the 
systematic position of the coffee-plant, from the Pre-Linnaean period 
to the present time, the genus Coffea L. has not been treated mono- 
graphically on an economic basis. Hiern discussed the African species 
of coffee in the Transactions of the Linnaean Society, series 2, i 
(1876) 173. K. Schumann published the results of his research on 
the African Rubiacese in Engler's Botanische Jahrbiicher 25 (1898) 
233. Lecomte in his book "Le Cafe," which was published in 1899, 
described numerous species and devoted the major part of the work 
to a discussion of coffee culture. Valeton's paper entitled ''Die 
Arten der Gattungen Cojfea L., etc.," which was published in the 
Bulletin de L'Institut Botanique de Buitenzorg 7 (1901) i; and 



X PREFACE 

De Wildemann's work, "Les Cafeiers," which was published in 
1 901, were entirely systematic studies. These publications are limited 
to certain geographical areas or are lacking in economic consideration. 

All discoverable bibliographical references have been studied care- 
fully in connection with the macroscopic and microscopic examination 
of the species. Available evidence resulting from his research en- 
abled the author to emend or amplify previous systematic descriptions 
and the nomenclatorial history of several species. The systematic 
treatment of the useful species is elaborated by a consideration of the 
other demands of an economic or applied botanical treatise. Thus 
the work enters a more original field of research than is characteristic 
of American methods of presentation. A section is devoted to 
coffee-adulteration and sophistication which involves a discussion 
of the past and present botanical sources of adulterants and substi- 
tutes and methods of detection, based on the microscopic, physical, 
and chemical examination of the commercial coffees and coffee-like 
beverages of the world. Such a discussion is inseparably connected 
with the commercial manipulation and the methods of preparation 
of coffee. Research in this department of the subject necessitated the 
determination of the caffeine-content of the seeds of the more common 
economic species. These caffeine-extractions from raw and roasted 
coffees, to ascertain any change due to seed-torrefication, required a 
study of the chemistry involved. The treatment presented here is 
the only complete compilation of the knowledge at hand. This 
investigation prompted the author to include a list, illustrations, and 
maps of the geographical distribution of the other caffeine-producing 
plants of the world. 

Ethnological considerations necessitated the historical discussion 
of the development of coffee-houses, an interesting part of ethno- 
botany which shows the effect of the introduction of coffee on the 
political and social life of the metropolitan centers of Egypt, Arabia, 
Asia Minor, Europe, and America. Finally, the derivation of the 
term "coffee" presented here is a new theory which is based on 
original philological and botanical research which carried the author 
backward through the Arabic, Hindu, Sanskrit, and Dravidian lan- 
guages of Southern India, and has resulted in the correction of an 
error which has existed since the tenth century. 

Recognition of the source of each illustration, not original with 



PREFACE xi 

the author, has been carefully noted. The author wishes to express 
his thanks to Professor Oakes Ames, his former teacher and Head 
of the Department of Economic Botany of Harvard University, for 
the patience with which he has directed, counseled, and aided him, 
and made possible the completion of this work. The author alone, 
however, is responsible for any errors which may be embodied in the 
subject-matter. The author sincerely appreciates the constructive 
counsel of Mr. F. Tracy Hubbard in respect to bibliographical and 
systematic work; and of Dr. James Plummer Poole of Dartmouth 
College. The author is also indebted to Mr. Lally and to Mr. 
Butler of the wholesale coffee-house of Messrs. Chase & Sanborn 
of Boston, Massachusetts, for the photograph of a Brazilian Coffee 
Plantation and for numerous samples of the commercial coffees of 
the world ; to the U. S. National Herbarium, Washington, D. C. ; 
and to the Gray Herbarium of Harvard University, institutions 
which very kindly placed at his disposal their entire collection of the 
species of Cojfea L. 

The author recognizes with appreciation the care exercised by 
Professor Arthur H. Nason, Ph.D., Director of the New York 
University Press, and by Miss Hannah E. Steen, Secretary to the 
Director, in the details of editing and proof-reading. It is with 
pleasure that the author expresses his gratitude to his colleagues, 
Professor L. Alfred Mannhardt, of the department of biology in the 
Washington Square College of New York University, and to Pro- 
fessor James Buell Munn, Ph.D., acting dean, for the assistance and 
courtesies which have encouraged the publication of this work. 

R. H. C. 

Department of Biology 
Washington Square College 
New York University 
1924. 



^.R. 



CONTENTS 



CHAPTER PAGE 

PART I.— THE BOTANY OF THE GENUS COFFEA L. i 
I. Botanical Treatment of the Genus Coffea L. . . 3 
H. Key for the Identification of Economic Species . . 11 
HI. Section EUCOFFEA Hook. f. Excluding the Non- 
Economic Species 15 

IV. Section LACHNOSTOMA Hook. f. Excluding the 

Non-Economic Species 97 

Chronological Table for Coffee .... facing 106 

PART II.— ECONOMIC DISCUSSION OF COFFEE 107 

V. Introduction 109 

(a) Indigenous Geographical Distribution .... 109 

r The Principal Coffee-Growing Countries . . iii 

(b) -I Explanation of the Terms Used in- Commercial 

Classification iil 

(c) Production and Consumption 118 

VI. Preparation of the Coffee-Bean 124 

(a) Plantation Treatment 124 

(b) Treatment by Wholesale Distributors .... 127 
VII. Commercial Sophistication and Substitution . . . 130 

(a) Botanical Sources of Coffee-Substitutes and Adul- 

terants 136 

(b) Detection of Coffee Sophistications 140 

VIII. The Chemistry of Coffee 157 

IX. Table Coffees 182 

(a) Explanation of Terms 182 

(b) Formulas for Preparation 183 

X. Caffeine-Yielding Plants of the V^orld .... i$7 

APPENDICES.— ETHNOLOGICAL DISCUSSION OF 

COFFEE 211 

Appendix A. — Philological and Botanical Treatise . . . 213 

Appendix B. — The History of Coffee-Houses 222 

Index 237 

xiii 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



PLATE 
I. 

2. 
3. 

4- 

5. 

6. 

7. 
8. 

9. 
10. 
II. 
12. 

13. 
14. 

15. 
16. 

17. 
18. 
19. 
20. 
21. 
22. 

23. 
24. 

25. 
26. 
27.. 
28. 



Part I 

SUBJECT 

Frontispiece, Coffea arabica L., Branch . 
Genus Coffea L., Fruit Morphology . . . . 
" " " Seed (Microscopic Structure) 

Coffea Wightiana Wall 

Coffea travancorensis Wight & Arn. 



Coffea bengalensts Heyne ex Roem. & Schult. 



(< (( (( 



(< <i (( 



Coffea stenophylla G. Don 
(( (( (( (( 

Coffea arabica L. . . . 



var. angustifolia Miq. 
Coffea congensis Froehner 



var. subsessilis DeWild. . . . 
" Chalotii Pierre .... 

Coffea mauritiana Lam 

Coffea Zanguebarics Lour 

Coffea canephora Pierre ex Froehner var. koiiilouensis Pierre 



(( <( 



(( (C 



PAGE 

iv 

4 
6 
16 
18 
20 
21 
23 
24 
26 
31 
33 
44 
46 

47 
49 
51 

53 
55 
57 
61 

63 

65 
67 
69 
71 
73 
77 



XVI 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



PLATE 
29. 

32. 
33. 
34. 

35- 
36. 
37- 
38. 
39. 
40. 
41. 
42. 
43. 



SUBJECT PAGE 

Coffea liberica Bull 80 

" 81 

" 84 

" 85 

" 86 

" 87 

" 89 



Coffea robusta Linden 91 

Coffea excelsa A. Chev 94 

Coffea Jenkinsii Hook, f 96 

" " «i U gg 

" " a u gg 

Coffea Ugustroides S. Moore lOl 

102 

Coffea khasiana Hook, f 104 



44. Chronological Table (Folding Plate) facing 106 



Part II 

45. A Brazilian Coffee Plantation 1 10 

46. Coffee Production (Commercial Areas) Map 115 

47. Coffee Consumption Curve 117 

48. Comparison Shipment Curves for Santos Coffee to the United 

States and Europe 119 

49. Comparison Shipment Curves for Rio Coffee to the United 

States and Europe 121 

50. Coffee Importation (Commercial Areas) Map 122 

51A. Coffea arabica L. Fruit. Transverse Section 12 X • • . 148 

51B. " " " Endocarp (Parchment). Transverse Sec- 
tion 500 X 148 

52A. Santos Coffee Bean: Transverse Section 12 X .... 149 

52B. Rio Coffee Bean: Transverse Section 12 X 149 

53A. Santos Coffee Bean: Transverse Section 12 X .... 150 

53B. '* " " Longitudinal Section 12 X . .- . . 150 

54A. Coffea arabica L. Epidermis and Outer Endosperm. Trans- 
verse Section 500 X 152 



ILLUSTRATIONS xvii 

PLATE SUBJECT PAGE 

54B. Coffea arabica L. Inner Endosperm Cells. Transverse Sec- 
tion 500 X 152 

55A. Coffea liberica Bull. Epidermis and Outer Endosperm. Trans- 
verse Section 500 X I53 

55B. Coffea liberica Bull. Inner Endosperm Cells. Transverse 

Section 500 X I53 

56A. Coffea liberica Bull. Seed. Transverse Section 12 X . . 154 

56B. " " " Germ. Transverse Section 500 X . . 154 

57A. " " " Seed. Transverse Section 12 X . . 155 

57B. " " " Seed. Longitudinal Section 12 X • • I55 

58. Thea sinensis L 188 

59. " " " Distribution Map 189 

60. Cola acuminata (Beauv.) Schott & Endl 190 

61. Cola species. Distribution Map 192 

62. Theobroma Cacao L 193 

63. Theobroma species. Distribution Map 194 

64. Paullinia Cupana H. B. K 196 

65. " " " Distribution Map I97 

66. Copernicia cerifera Mart 198 

67. " " " Distribution Map 199 

68. Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil 202 

69. South American Ilex sp. Distribution Map 204 

70. Ilex vomit aria Ait 205 

71. " " " 206 



Appendices A and B 

72. Coffe (Seventeenth Century Notice) 219 

73. The Crown Coffee-House, Boston 228 

74. The Exchange Coffee-House, Boston, 1808-1818 .... 229 

75. The Royal Exchange Tavern, Boston 231 

76. The Green Dragon Tavern, Boston 232 

77. Coffee Urn 235 



PART I 

THE BOTANY OF THE GENUS COFFEA L 



CHAPTER I 

CoFFEA L., Sp. Pl. ED. I (i753) 172 

Calyx glandular on the inner surface or with glands between 
the lobes ; tube short, campanulate, turbinate, or urceolate ; limb 
small or obsolete, cleft or obscurely toothed, persistent, not accrescent. 
Flowers white, commonly fragrant, hermaphroditic, axillary, clus- 
tered, very rarely terminal and solitary; pedicels and peduncles 
sessile or short, usually with connate bracteoles forming a single or 
double cupule at the base of the calyx or on the short pedicels or 
peduncles. Corolla membranous or slightly coriaceous, salver- or 
funnel-shaped, contorted, glabrous, or villose on the throat; tube 
short or elongated; limb spreading, 4- to 8-partite; lobes contorted 
dextrorsely (as seen from the inside in aestivation). Stamens 4 to 
8, inserted on the corolla-tube, usually near or at the mouth, ex- 
serted or included, glabrous, often twisted; filaments short, obsolete, 
or even two-thirds of the length of the anthers; anthers linear, 
attached at the back (dorsal surface) above the base. Style filiform, 
2-cleft, glabrous, usually shortly exserted ; lobes linear, spathulate, 
or tapering. Disk fleshy, glabrous. Ovary 2-celled; ovules soli- 
tary, subpeltately attached at about the middle of the ovary or 
rather lower, amphitropous. Berry ellipsoidal, oblong, or sub- 
globose, dry or fleshy; pyrenes 2 (one sometimes abortive), papery 
or coriaceous, convex on the back, flat with a narrow but usually 
deep longitudinal furrow on the face (inner or ventral surface) ; 
embryo somewhat curved; cotyledons foliaceous; radicle subterete, 
inferior, longer than the cotyledons; albumen horny. Leaves oppo- 
site, usually glabrous, decussate, or rarely three-whorled ; stipules 
interpetiolate, ovate, basally broad or lanceolate, apiculate, acumi- 
nate, persistent. Evergreen, seldom deciduous, small trees or shrubs. 

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COFFEA L. 5 

Microscopic Characteristics of the Seed: — (i) The seed-coat is 
composed of several layers of collapsed, parenchymatous cells. Fre- 
quently the structure is not very distinct but the cell-w^alls can be 
seen here and there. The seed-coat includes numerous sclerenchy- 
matous cells w^hich are invariably present in this genus. These cells 
are about eight times as long as broad although there is some varia- 
tion in proportionate w^idth. Sclerenchymatous cells are arranged 
in approximation with their long axes parallel, and possess numerous 
large oblique pits. They vary from 150 \i to 350 \i in length, and 
taper bluntly, but are occasionally terminated by flat transverse 
walls. Their walls are lignified. (2) The endosperm epidermis 
and the one or two layers immediately beneath possess walls which 
are evenly thickened. The remaining endosperm cells are parenchy- 
matous, thick-walled structures with large pits which may be as 
long as the width of the cell. In section, the cell-walls show a 
distinct knottiness which is very characteristic. The cell-contents 
consist chiefly of oil globules and proteid matter in addition to 
normal cytoplasm. (3) The embryo is composed entirely of minute, 
parenchymatous cells. 

Synonymy: — Hexepta Raf. Sylva Tellur. (1838) 164. — Lach- 
nostoma Korth. in Nederl. Kruidk. Arch. 2 (1851) 201. 

Common Name: — Coffee. 

Geographical Distribution: — Tropical Asia; tropical Africa; by 
introduction, throughout the tropics of the world. 

Number of Species: — Forty. 

Number of Economic Species: — Nineteen. 

History of the Genus Coffea: — Botanists of to-day agree that the 
coffee-plant is indigenous to certain hilly regions of Abyssinia, of the 
Soudan, of Guinea, and of Mozambique. Coffee has been used in 
Ethiopia from the earliest times. Its use reached Abyssinia from 
Ethiopia, and became known in Arabia probably during the thir- 
teenth century. Arabia became the stepping-stone to its universal 
consumption. It was Arabian coffee, shipped through the port of 
Mocha, that resulted in the esteem for and the general use of the 
term ''Mocha" for millions of tons of foreign-grown coffee. 

At that early period, Arabian traders were the most enterprising 
in the world. They added coffee to other luxuries from Africa. 
Since they were fortunately situated between Europe and Asia, 



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COFFEA L. 7 

they easily distributed it; and its use readily extended to Persia and 
Syria, then to Cairo and Venice; and it soon became the favorite 
drink at Constantinople. Coffee-houses appeared in the cities of 
all countries bordering on the eastern Mediterranean sea. The use 
of coffee was introduced into Europe about the middle ot the seven- 
teenth century; and, within a brief period, it became a favorite 
drink in London, in Paris, and throughout Europe. Coffee-houses 
became numerous, and served as gathering-places for literary men, 
politicians, and all other ranks of society. 

Until about eighteen hundred, the world was dependent upon 
Africa for its coffee-supply. Louis XIV is credited with being the 
first to decree its introduction into the French West Indies at 
Martinique. Other European governments soon afterward intro- 
duced it successfully in the West Indies. The Dutch carried it 
into Java, Sumatra, and other islands of the Malay Archipelago. 
The coffee-plant was introduced into India about seventeen hundred 
and into Ceylon soon afterward. Spanish missionaries brought it 
to the Philippine Islands from Java in 1740. About this time, the 
first plant was grown in Brazil. Later it spread to Cuba, Porto 
Rico, and Mexico, and finally throughout Central and tropical South 
America. 

Religious and state governments at various times attempted to 
check the popularity of the coffee-beverage by denouncing it as an 
insidiously pernicious drink and as occasioning gathering-places which 
gave birth to and nourished sedition and dangerous revolutionary 
ideas. Heavy taxation was levied as a source of governmental rev- 
enue. In spite, however, of attempted prohibition and the changes 
m the customs and habits of successive generations, the popularity 
of coffee has increased until tTie annual world consumption is now 
more than the enormous sum of 2,500,000,000 to 3,000,000,000 
pounds. 

Africa, the original and only important source for world con- 
sumption up to eighteen hundred, is to-day an unimportant factor 
in the bulk of coffee-production; while Brazil, where the coffee- 
plant is not native, has become the world's greatest coffee-growing 
country. Although the United States is the largest consumer of 
coffee with per capita consumption of twelve pounds per annum. 



8 COFFEE 

Holland ranks as the greatest consumer per capita with fifteen to 
fifteen and one half pounds.^ 

Prelinnaean References: — See Cojfea arabica L. 

Bibliography: — L. Syst. Nat. ed. i (1735) as Coffaa; L. Gen. PL ed. 
4 (1754) 80. — Wernischeck Gen. PL (1766) 66.— Aublet Hist. PL 
Guian. Frang. i (1775) 150. — Lamarck Encycl. Method. 2 (1786) 63. — 
L. Mat. Med. ed. 5 (1787) 69. — Gaertner De Fruct. and Sem. PL i 
(1788) 118. — Lamarck Encycl. Method. Planch. Bot. Ic. (1792) t. 160. 
— Moench Meth. PL (1794) 504. — Ruiz and Pavon FL Peruv. and 
Chilen. 2 (1799) 63. — Jussieu Ant. L. sur la Fam. PL Rubiac. in Mus. 
Hist. Nat. Mem. 6 (1820) 379-— Blume Bijdr. FL NederL (1826) 
965. — Richard A. Mem. sur la Fam. Rubiac. (1829) 88, t. 6, f. 2. — 
DC. Prodr. 4 (1830) 498.— D'Aulnay Monogr. du Cafe (1832).— 
Roxb. FL Ind. i (1832) 538.— Kosteleszky Medizin. FL 2 (1833) 556.— 
Don G. Gen. Hist. Dichlam. PL 3 (1834) 579» — Wight and Arn. 
Prodr. I (1834) 435.— EndL Gen. PL (1838) 533-— Lindley FL Med. 
(1838) 440.— Miq. FL Ind. Bat. 2 (1856-59) 304-— Grisbach FL Brit. 
W. L (1864) 338.— Miq. AnnaL Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Bat. 4 (1868-69) 
258. — Benth. and Hook. f. Gen. PL pt. i, 2 (1873) 114. — Hiern On 
the Afr. Sp. of the Gen. Coffea in Trans, Linn. Soc. Ser. 2, i (1876) 
173; in Oliver FL Trop. Afr. 3 (1877) 179. — Ernst A. Hat der Kaffee- 
baum wirklich dimorphe Bliiten in Bot. Zeit. 34 (1876) 36. — Evans 
M.S. PL Fertiliz. {Coffea) in Nature 8 (1876) 427.— Kurz For. FL 
Brit. Burma 2 (1877) 6, 27.— Hook. f. FL Brit. Ind. 3 (1882) 153.— 
Schum. K. in EngL Nat. Pflanzenfam. 4, Abt. 4, (1891) 104, Nachtr. 
(1897) 315- — Trim. Handb. FL Ceylon 2 (1894) 352. — Schum. K. 
Rubiac. Afr. in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 23 (1896) 412. — Froehner in Engl. 
Bot. Jahrb. 25 (1898) 233. — Warburg. O. KafEeehybriden in Tropen- 
pflanz. 2 (1898) 5. — Lecomte Le Cafe (1899) 10. — DeWild. in Perrot 
Actes P^ Congres Internat. Bot. (1900) 221-238. — Valeton Die Arten 
der Gattung. Coffea L. etc. in Bull. Inst. Bot. Buitenz. 7 (1901) 1-34. — 
DeWild. Les Cafeiers i (1901) 1-43. — Cornaillac El Cafe, la Vainilla, 
el Cacao, etc. (1903) 16. — Mariani Les Cafeiers-Struct. Anat. Feuille 
(1908) 9. 

Economic and Cultural References: — Meyner Traite sur le Cafe 
(1624). — Dafour L'Emploi du Cafe (1671) ; Le Cafe (1684). — Chardin 
Voy. (1686). — EngL ed. 2 (1811) 279. — Blankaart Verhandelinge van 
de Coffee (1686).— Nichol de Blegny L'Emploi du Cafe (1687).— 
Thevenot Travels in Levant, Indostan, etc. (Engl. transL) i (1687) 
162. — Petrus Petitus Homeri Nepenthes (1689) 73- — Sloane Phil. 
Trans. Lond. 3 (1693); ed. (1809) 623. — Pomet Hist. Gen. Drogues 
I (1694) 204. — Galand L'Orig. et Progres du Cafe (1699). — La Roque 
Voy. TArab. (1716) 276-403, t. 276, 284. — Aublet Hist. PL Guyanes 
fran?. (1775). — M. Buc'hoz Dissert, sur I'util. et les bons et mauvais 
effets du Tabac, Cafe, Cacao et The. Paris (1788) 89. — Russell Nat. 
Hist. Aleppo ed. 2, i (1794) 119, 127, 372. — Bruce Travels 2 (1790) 

* For a more detailed historical account of coffee, see History under Coffea 
arabica L. 



COFFEA L. 9 

226. — Christ Der neueste u. beste deutsche Stellvertretter d. indischen 
Coffee oder Der Coffee von Erdmandeln (1800). — Cadet de Vaux 
Dissert, sur le Cafe (1807) 1-120. — Lownes The Coffee Planter 
(1807) 5-76. — Macpherson Comm. Ind. (1812) 271. — Milburn Or. 
Comm. I (1813) 104. — Ament De cult, en behand. der Westindische 
Koffij & Indigo (1836).— Coubard-D'Aulnay Mongr. Cafe ed. 2 (1843). 
— Law Hist. Coffee (1850). — Brill Dissert, sur le Cafe (1862). — 
Chevalier, J. B. A. Du Cafe (1862).— Mclvor, Laborie's Coffee-Pl. 
St. Dom. (1863). — Simmonds Coffee and Chicory (1864). — Aubry- 
Lecomte Cult, et Prod. Cafe Col. (1865). — Lascelles Nature and Cult. 
Coffee (1865).— Middleton Man. Coffee Plant. (1866).— Welter Essai 
sur I'hist. du Cafe i (1868) 402. — Sabonadiere Coffee-Pl. Ceylon 
(1870). — Elliott Planter in Mysore (1871). — Maout and Decaisne 
(transl. by Mrs. Hook.) Gen. Syst. Bot. Descrip. and Anal. (1873) 
483 t. seeds, 487. — Moreira Breves Consideracoes sobre a hist, e cult, 
do Cafeiro (1873).— D'Orli P. H. F. B. Cult. Cafe etc. (1874).— 
Stainbank Coffee Natal (1874). — Riant Le Cafe etc. (1875). — Hanson 
Cult, and Comm. Coffee (1877).— Hull Coffee PL in S. Ind. and 
Ceylon (1877). — Ernst A. Estudios sobre las deformaciones, enfer- 
medades y enemigos de cafe de Venezuela. Caracas. Feb. (1878). — 
Pennetier Le Cafe (1878). — Anderson Coffee Cult. Mysore (1879). — 
Hughes Ceylon Coffee, Soils and Manures (1879). — Van der Berg 
N. P. Hist.-Statist. Notes on The Prod. & Consumpt. Coffee (1880). 
— Anderson in Trop. Agric. i (1881) 217. — Anon. I.e. 233, 253, 260. — 
Thurber Coffee-Plant, to Cup (1881). — Bohnke-Reich Kaffee in sein. 
Bezieh. usvi^. Leipzig (1885).— DeCandolle Orig. Cult. PI. (1885) 415. 
— Van Delden-Laerne Brazil and Java Rep. Coffee Cult, in America, 
Asia, and Africa (1885) 1-637. — Arnold Coffee — Its Cult, and Profit 
(1886). — Lock Coffee — Its Cult, and Comm. in all countries (1888). — 
Lecomte in La Geographie. June (1891). — Nichols Text-Bk. Trop. 
Agric. (1892) 91-109. — Tschirch. Ind. Heil- u. Nutzpflanz. (1892) 
58-73. — Burton First Footsteps in E. Afr. i (1894) 12. — Elliott Gold, 
Sport, and Coffee in Mysore (1894). — Lodge Coffee — Hist,, Growth 
and Cult., Prepar. and Effect on Syst. (1894). — Raoul Cult. Cafeier 
(1894). — Heuze PI. Industr. 4 (1894) 172. — Delalande Quelques Mots 
Sur Les Malad. Cafeiers (1895). — Jardin M. E. Le cafeier et cafe, 
monogr. hist, scientif. et comm. Paris (1895). — Burck Over De Oor- 
zaken Van Den Achteruitgang Van De Gouvernements-Koffie-cult. Op 
Java (1896); De Gouvernements-Koffie-cult. Met Betrekkung Tot De 
Volkswelvaart (1897). — Raoul Cult. Cafeier in Man. Prat. Cult. 
Trop. pt. I, 2 (1897). — Rigaud La Cult. Cafe a Madagascar (1897). — 
Ferguson Coffee Plant. Man. (1898) 1-279. — Laborie Coffee Plant. 
St. Dom. (1898). — Lecomte Le Cafe (1899) 41-330. — Sadebeck Die 
Kulturgew. der Deut. Kolon. (1899) 137, 142. — Dafert Principes Cult. 
Ration. Cafe Bresil (1900). — Morren Die Arbeiten auf einer Kaffee- 
plantage in Der Tropenpflanz., Beiheft i (1900) 39-118. — Jumelle 
Les Cult. Col. PL Aliment, i (1901) 353-378.— Mukeri Handb. Ind. 
Agric. (1901) 456-462. — Cook Shade in Coffee Cult., U. S. Dept. 
Agric, Div. Bot., Bull. 25 (1901). — Bertrand Recherche et dosage de 
la cafeine dans plusieurs especes de cafes in Bull. Sc. Pharm. 5 (1902) 



10 COFFEE 

283. — Coffee, Extensive Inform, and Statistics. Engl, ed., Wash. D. C. 
(1902) 5-103. — Cornaillac El Cafe, la Vainilla, el Cacao, etc. (1903) 
37-183. — Wiesner Die Rohst. des Pflanzenr. i (1903) 483. — Kurth Die 
Lage Des Kaffeemarkt. u. Die Kaffeevalorisation (1907) 5-34. — Ramos 
The Valorisation of Coffee in Brazil (1907). — Fauchere Cult. Prat. 
Cafeier (1908). — Laliere Le Cafe (1909) 1-417. — Dieseldorff Der 
Kaffeebaum (1909) 1-37. — Anstead The Comp. Coffee Berry and Its 
Relation to the Manuring of a Coffee Estate, in Ann. App. Biol., Nos. 
3 and 4, I (1915) 299-302. — Perrot Les Grands Prod. Veg. des Col. 
frang. (1915) 427. — Dingle New Atlas and Comm. Gazeteer China 
ed. 2 (1917) XII. — Challamel (editor) Congres d'Agric. Col. (Sect. 
du Cafe) 3 (1918) 1-72. — Rein Abessinien 2 (1919) 3, 7, 10, 25, 50, 
62, 116 ff, 132, 155 ff, 163, 165, 170, 196, 205, 320. — Ukers All About 
Coffee (1922). 



CHAPTER II 

DiCHOTOMous Key to the Economic Species of the 
Genus COFFEA 

Section I. Corolla 5 to 8 partite Eucoffea Hook. f. 

Exception: — Coffea canephora Pierre is sometimes 4-partite. 
Section II. Corolla 4-partite Lachnostoma Hook. f. 

Section I:— EUCOFFEA Hook. f. 

Trees or shrubs. Flowers fascicled or solitary. Corolla-lobes 
5 to 8, large, obtuse; corolla-tube long and slender; anthers exserted 
or included, dorsifixed. Calyx-limb irregularly few or many-toothed. 
Style usually long; but commonly short in Coffea Wiffhtiana Wall., 
Coffea travancorensis Wight & Arn., Coffea fragrans Wall, ex Hook. 
f., and Coffea bengalensis Heyne ex Roem. & Schult. Fruit didy- 
mous when 2-seeded. Endosperm, in transverse section, shows 
characteristic plications or, at least, wrinklings; knottiness of the 
cell-wall distinct. 

I. Anthers included (hidden in the corolla-tube), see II. 
I. Stigmas included in the corolla-tube. 

A. Leaves rough (unglazed), hairy at least in the axils of the 
lateral veins, 
a. Flowers 5-6-partite, calyculus extending beyond the calyx- 
margin. 
x. Each calyculus surrounding one flower; fruit bicapitate 
by longitudinal furrows; — see y. 
*. Calyx dentate; — see **. 
+. Calyx-teeth fringed ; — see + -|- ; bracts chaffy, not 
herbaceous; flowers appear before the leaves; branches 

with whitish or grayish loose bark, thick 

C. Wiffhtiana Wall. 

-f +. Calyx cup-shaped, many-toothed; synanthous; a 

glabrous bush; branches covered with fine, short, 



12 COFFEE 

almost imperceptible hairs; leaves elliptic-lanceolate, 

obtuse or obtusely caudate-acuminate, not very 

glossy, veins raised . . . .C. fragrans Wall, ex Hook. f. 

**. Calyx-margin nearly smooth ; flowers appearing after the 

leaves; branches slender, covered with brownish cortex, 

rough in appearance. . .C. travancorensis Wight & Arn. 

y. One calyculus commonly for several flowers; flowers 

frequently 6-merous; leaves herbaceous, both sides pale 

green, with about 7 first rank veins; hairs unicellular, 

woolly ; fruit oval 

C. hengalensis Heyne ex Roem. & Schult. 

II. Anthers exserted (extending completely out of the corolla-tube). 

1. Leaves deciduous, annual; — see 2. 

A. Leaves hairy, at least in the axils of the lateral veins; — 
see B. 

a. Secondary branches rise upward forming an acute angle 
with the stem. 
X. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, scabrid C. racemosa Lour. 

B. Leaves glabrous, broadly ovate, shortly acuminate; branches 
with grayish-white bark; flowers 6-partite, 2 to 6 in a 
spireme C. Ibo Froehner 

2. Leaves evergreen, perennial. 

A. Leaves up to 15 cm. long; — see B. 

a. Leaves with distinctly elongated, narrow, and attenuated 
tip which provides for the rapid drainage of water; — 
see b. 
X. Trees or shrubs, not climbing. 
*. Flowers i to 3 together; — see **. 
-f-. Flowers 6-7-partite. 

I. Calyx-margin projecting beyond the calyculus. 
=. Calyx-margin short, indistinctly dentate; corolla 
12 mm. long; bracts of the primary calyculus 
linear ; leaves narrow, cuneate at the base, caudate- 
acuminate, less then 15 cm. long, glossy on both 
surfaces, grayish-green, 5 to 6 veins of the first 
rank rather indistinct; a shrub or tree, slender, 
glabrous; bark light gray. .C. stenophylla G. Don 



DICHOTOMOUS KEY 13 

**. Flowers 4 or more in axillary fascicle; lobe of the 
gamosepalous calyx short, dentate; tree or shrub. 
+. Leaves ovate or elliptical, papery, 9 to 12 veins of the 

first rank ; — see -\ 1- C. arabica L. 

-f- +. Leaves narrow-elliptical, thickly coriaceous, 5 to 7 

veins of the first rank C. congensis Froehner 

b. Leaves with shorter, obtuse terminations. 
X. Leaves not diflFering macroscopically on the two surfaces; 
— see y. 
*. Leaves remarkably glossy; both surfaces bear sharply 
prominent, graceful, reticulated venation; calyculus not 
extending the calyx-margin. 

-[-. Flowers i to 4 in a cluster; leaves ovate 

C. mauritiana Lam. 

y. Leaves differing macroscopically on the two surfaces. 

*. Leaves dull above, very glossy below, with 10 to 12 

veins of the first rank, lower surface shows prominently 

reticulated venation, broadly ovate; sclerenchymatous 

tissue rather abundant; fruit oval, longitudinally 

striped ; a glabrous, erect shrub ; — see ** 

C. Zawguehariae Lour. 
**. Leaves olive or brownish above when dry, paler be- 
neath, small, oblong or oblong-lanceolate, obtuse . . . 

C. Swynnertonii S. Moore 
B. Leaves 18 to 30 cm. long, thinly coriaceous or chartaceous. 

a. Flowers 4 or more in a fascicle; leaves ovate or obovate, 
sometimes cuneate toward the base, apex short; upper sur- 
face dark, glossy, lower surface lighter and bearing dis- 
tinct first-rank veins; calyculus not projecting beyond the 
calyx-margin ; — see b. 

X. Flowers 5- (rarely 4-) partite; leaves with 12 to 14 paired 

lateral veins of the first rank; — see y 

C. camphor a Pierre 

y. Flowers 6-8-merous; leaves with 8 to 12 paired lateral 
veins of the first rank C. Uberica Bull 

b. Flowers in dense axillary fascicles, about 4.4 cm. in diam- 
eter, often with a few small leaves intermixed; leaves 
large, chartaceous, oblong-elliptical, obtusely caudate- 



14 COFFEE 

acuminate, rounded at the base, up to 25 cm. long by 
15 cm. wide, dull on both surfaces, glabrous, midrib flat 
above, prominent below ; calyx minute, entire ; — see c. 
X. Flowers 5-merous, corolla-tube less than 1.25 cm. long; 
leaves with 9 to 12 lateral veins, looped and much 
branched within the margin, slightly arcuate, diverging 
by a 45-degree angle from the midrib, distinct above, 
prominent below, veins lax, petiole 1.25 cm. long, glab- 
rous; berries about 1.25 cm. in diameter 

C. robusta Linden 
c. Flowers in axillary cymes, each of i to 5 fragrant, white 
flowers; total corolla-length 20 mm.; leaves 18-30 cm. long 
by 9-12 cm. wide, short petiole i cm. long, leaf-blade 
obovate-lanceolate, obovate-spathulate, terminating abrupt- 
ly in an obtuse apex, 6 to 9 paired prominent veins below ; 
calyx greatly reduced or nearly absent, shorter than the 
disk; calycules bear resinous surfaces, slightly fimbricated 
at the margin C. excelsa A. Chev. 

Section II:— LACHNO STOMA Hook. f. 

Trees or shrubs. Flowers white, very small, in axillary cymes; 
bracts and bracteoles small, ovate, subconnate; corolla-tube short, 
throat dilated, bearded, lobes four, small, acute ; aestivation contorted ; 
anthers oblong, acute, dorsally attached near the base; filaments, if 
exserted, very shortly so. Calyx-limb quadridentate. Leaves petio- 
late, membranaceous, younger parts pubescent; stipules connate at 
the base, ovate, apex cuspidate, subpersistent. Fruit subglobose to 
oblong-ellipsoid, not didymous when 2-seeded; calyx crowns the 
fruit ; pericarp fleshy ; endocarp rather fibrous ; seeds dorsally convex, 
ventrally plane or concave. Endosperm, in transverse section, de- 
void of plications; knottiness of the cell-walls very indistinct or 
lacking. 

L Leaves glabrous, oval or elliptical, acuminate; fruit long; seeds 

long, plano-convex; — see II C. Jenkinsii Hook. f. 

II. Leaves oblong-lanceolate, obtuse, frequently cuspidate; fruit 

oblong; seeds oblong; — see III C. ligustroides S. Moore 

III. Leaves at least somewhat hairy along the veins; fruit nearly 
round ; seeds round, concavo-convex C. khasiana Hook, f . 



CHAPTER III 

Genus COFFEA L.: Section I: EUCOFFEA Hook. f. 

Cojfea Wightiana Wall. 

Coffea fragrans Wall, ex Hook. f. 

Coffea travancorensis Wight & Arn. 

Cojfea bengalensis Heyne ex Roem. & Schult. 

Cojfea racemosa Lour. 

Cojfea Ibo Froehner 

Cojfea stenophylla G. Don 

Cojfea arabica L. 

Cojfea congensis Froehner 

Cojfea mauritiana Lam. 

Cojfea Zanguebarice Lour. 

Cojfea Swynnertonii S. Moore 

Coffea canephora Pierre 

Coffea liberica Bull 

Cojfea robusta Linden 

Coffea excelsa Chev. 

Cojfea Wightiana Wall. Cat. (1832) No. 6246. 

A small, copiously branched, almost spinescent bush with whitish 
bark. Branches rigid, stout, divaricate, often suppressed and very 
short, sometimes slender; young shoots puberulous. Leaves small, 
1.25 cm. wide by 3.75 cm. long, subsessile or nearly sessile, oval, 
tapering toward the base, obtuse, glabrous or woolly in axils of 
veins beneath, subcoriaceous, pale when dry; stipules spinescent, 
short, sharply pointed, rigid, persistent, becoming small curved 
prickles, especially on the lateral branches. Flowers solitary, ses- 
sile, appear before the leaves, on short lateral branches, 5-merous, 
\try sweetly scented, w^hite ; corolla-lobes much narrower than in 
C. bengalensis Heyne ex Roem. & Schult.; corolla-tube about 1.25 
cm. long, lobes oblong-oval, obtuse, slightly over one-half the length 

15 



Lo^^ca. ^A/l^ktla.^^*^. VsTa-tt. 




v^oroLla. ;V<i<-ti<iaV Stat.ow 






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I i 



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PLATE 4: COFFEA IVIGHTIANA WALL. 



i6 



EUCOFFEA HOOK. F. 17 

of the corolla-tube; style short; calyx-limb 5-dentate, the margin 
with numerous shaggy hairs. Fruit not readily seen, about 0.83 cm. 
in diameter, much broader than long, didymous, with deep furrows 
between the lobes. 

Diagnostic Characters of the Species: — Flowers in August and 
September. The calyx is enveloped by a resinous gum; shaggy and 
numerous hairs. Style short. Bark whitish or ash-like in color. 

Common Name: — Kaddumallikai (Tamil Dialect). 

Geographical Distribution: — Southern and Western India; in dry 
places from Coorg (or Kurg) to Travancore. Ceylon in the hot, 
drier parts of the island, rather rare; occurs in Jaffna, Mihintale, 
Uma-oya, Atakalen Korale. Grows up to 850 M. altitude. 

History: — C. Wighttana Wall, was first noted about 1828. It 
occurs only in the drier regions of India and Ceylon up to an alti- 
tude of 850 M. It is the source of some local coffee-consump- 
tion in the above regions. 

Uses: — Mainly as a substitute for the seeds of C. arahica L. 

Bibliography:— Wall. Cat. (1832) No. 6246.— Wight & Arn. Prodr. 

1 (1834) 436.— Wight Ic. PL Ind. Or. 4 (1850) t. 1598.— Thwaites 
Enum. Ceylon PL (1859) I54-— Hook. f. FL Brit. Ind. 3 (1882) 154.— 
Trimen Cat. Flow. PL & Ferns Ceylon (1885) 44; Handb. FL Ceylon 

2 (1894) 352- — K. Schum. in Engl. & Prantl Nat. Pflanzenfam. IV, Abt. 
4, Nachtr. (1897) 3i5- — Froehner in Notizbl. d. Kgl. Bot. Mus. 
(1897) 231; in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 25 (1898) 252, 256. — Valeton in BulL 
Inst. Bot. Buitenz. 8 (1901) 17, 23. — Cornaillac El Cafe, la Vainilla, 
el Cacao, etc. (1903) 21. 

Economic and Cultural References: — Watt Diet. Econ. Prod. Ind. 2 
(1889) 461.— Sebire Les PL UtiL Senegal (1899) 179.— Gamble Man. 
Ind. Timbers ed. 2 (1922) 422. 

Cojfea fragrans Wall, ex Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 3 (1882) 154. 

A bush with glabrous or puberulous branches. Leaves elliptic- 
lanceolate, obtuse or obtusely caudate-acuminate, 1.2 cm. to 2.5 cm. 
wide, 4 cm. to 8 cm. long, glossy. Flowers solitary, synanthous, 
5-merous; corolla-tube 1.6 cm. to 2.5 cm. long; calyx many-toothed. 
Fruit 0.83 cm. in diameter, broadly didymous. 

Diagnostic Characters of the Species: — Leaves more brilliant 
(shining) than the allied species C. ti-avaucorensis Wight & Arn.; 
veins raised to a greater degree. Calyx-limb deeply cupped, many- 
toothed. 



U oi*>^ea travaiMCoreMsis V^i<^Wtw Kn 



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PLATE 5: COFFEA TRAVANCORENSIS 

WIGHT & ARNOTT 

l8 



EUCOFFEA HOOK. F. 19 

Synonymy: — Coffea triflora var. fragrans (Wall). Froehner in 
Notlzbl. d. Kgl. Bot. Gard. i (1897) 231; in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 
25 (1898) 256. 

Geographical Distribution: — Eastern India; Sylhet, Tenasserim, 
Burma, Mergui. 

History: — C. fragrans Wall, ex Hook. f. was collected in the 
Sylhet region of India by Gomez; in Tenasserim by Heifer; and 
in Mergui (Mergui) by Griffith. It is very similar to G. travan- 
corensis Wight & Arn. and has been treated as a variety of that 
species by some authors. 

Uses: — Mainly as a substitute for the seeds of C, arabica L. 

Bibliography: — Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 3 (1882) 154. — Froehner in 
Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 25 (1898) 256.— Lecomte Le Cafe (1899) I5-— 
Valeton in Bull. Inst. Bot. Buitenz. 7 (1901) 7, I7, 20. 

Economic and Cultural References: — Sebire PI. Util. Senegal (1899) 
179.— Gamble Man. Ind. Timbers ed. 2 (1922) 422. 

Coffea travancorensis Wight and Arn. Prodr. i (1834) 435. 

A small shrub. Branches stiff, slightly pubescent, slender, thick- 
ened at the nodes ; twigs flattened ; bark of the younger twigs brown- 
ish. Leaves small, 2.5 cm. to 3.75 cm. wide by 7.5 cm. to lO.o cm. 
long, oval, lanceolate or elliptic-lanceolate, acute at the base, acumi- 
nate, shortly acute or obtuse at the apex, quite glabrous, rather thin; 
petiole very short; stipules small, short, rounded, with cuspidate 
point, soon dehiscent. Flowers solitary or in threes, occasionally 
in fours, usually 5-merous, white, very sweet-scented, synanthous; 
pedicel very short, each bearing 2 minute, linear bracts at the base; 
corolla-tube 1.66 cm. to 2.5 cm. long, glabrous within, lobes ovate- 
oblong, acute, rather shorter than the tube; ovary bears thick disk 
surrounding the style; stigma large, erect; calyx small, pubescent, 
limb quite absent or 2- to 3-toothed. Fruit black, broadly didymous, 
0.83 cm. in diameter. Slightly pubescent when young; deep ver- 
tical furrow divides the fruit into 2 parts causing it to appear 
bicapitate; pedicel short. 

Diagnostic Characters of the Species: — This plant blossoms from 
April until June. The flowers resemble those of jasmine and are 
similar to, but smaller than, C. bengalensis Heyne ex Roem. & 
Schult. The leaves are dark above, lighter green below, somewhat 
shorter than C. bengalensis Heyne ex Roem. & Schult. The leaves 




PLATE 6: COFFEA TRAVANCORENSIS WIGHT & ARNOTT 
From Trimen Plates Handb. Fl. Ceylon (1893) t. 53. 



20 




PLATE 7: COFFEA TRAVANCORENSIS WIGHT & ARNOTT 



21 



22 COFFEE 

are pale and rather yellowish when dry, broadly orbicular-elliptical 
in Ceylon specimens. In general, the leaves are intermediate in size 
between C. JVightiana Wall, and C. benffalensis Heyne ex Roem. 
& Schult. The form of the stipules distinguishes this species from 
C. benffalensis Heyne ex Roem. & Schult. 

Synonymy: — Cojfea triflora Moon Cat. (1824) 15 (Non Forst). 

Common Name: — Moon's Sinhalese name for this plant is "Gas- 
pichcha." 

Geographical Distribution : — Southern and Western India, Ne- 
gombo, Deltota, Doluwe Kande, Travancore; Ceylon, in the warm, 
moist, and intermediate regions up to 3000 feet; rather rare. 
Unauthentic reports from Java. 

History: — C. travancorensis Wight and Arn. was first described 
in 1834 by Wight as an indigenous plant in western India in the 
Travancore region. It was also collected in Kalutara by Moon 
and in Kurunegala by Gardner. It is rather rare and not as yet 
of any commercial importance. 

Uses: — Mainly as a local substitute for the seeds of C. arah'ica L. 

Bibliography: — Wall. Cat. (1832) No. 6245. — Wight and Arn. Prodr. 

1 (1834) 435- — Thwaites Enum. Ceylon PL (1859) 154. — Hook. f. Fl. 
Brit. Ind. 3 (1882) 154. — Trimen Cat. Flow. PL and Ferns Ceylon 
(1885) 44; Plates Handb. Fl. Ceylon (1893) t. 531 Handb. FL Ceylon 

2 (1894) 353- — Froehner in Notizbl. d. Kgl. Bot. Mus. (1897) 231. — 
K. Schum. in Engl, and Prantl Nat. Pflanzenfam. 4, Abt. 4, Nachtr. 
(1897) 315- — Froehner in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. (1898) 252, 256. — Lecomte 
Le Cafe (1899) 4. — Valeton in Bull. Inst. Bot. Buitenz. 7 (1901) 7, 
17-20. — Cornaillac El Cafe, la Vainilla, el Cacao, etc. (1903) 20. 

Economic and Cultural References: — Sebire PL Util. Senegal (1899) 
179. — Gamble Man. Ind. Timbers ed. 2 (1922) 422. 

Cojfea hengalemis Heyne ex Roem. and Schult. S5^st. Veg. 5 
(1819) 200. 

A glabrous shrub bearing horizontal, dichotomous, slender branches. 
Leaves deciduous, 12.5 cm. long by 7.5 cm. wide as a maximum 
but usually much smaller, not glossy, opposite, broadly ovate or 
elliptic, obtusely acuminate, entire, spreading, remote, submembrana- 
ceous; veins (especially in the young leaves) hairy beneath, base 
rounded or acute, always contracted into a very short petiole with 
persistent subulate (awl-shaped) stipules. Flowers axillary, or 
more commonly at the terminus of short shoots with leaf-like bracts. 



c»H 



ea- 



benqalensiS l 




:B.i.^v.e..-a.«^>-Su.H- 




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PLATE 
HEYNE 



. COFFEA BENGALENSIS 
' EX ROEM. & SCHULT. 
23 



Ik 




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PLATE 9: COFFEA BENGALENSIS 

HEYNE EX ROEM. & SCHULT. 

Young branch. 

24 



EUCOFFEA HOOK. F. 25 

Flowers i to 3 together, 5-6-merous, and appear before the leaves; 
flowers fragrant, pure white, large 2.5 cm. to 3.75 cm. in diameter; 
corolla hypocrateriform ; corolla-tube i'.25 cm. to 3.75 cm. long; 
lobes obovate-oblong; calyx-tube turbinate, downy, limb short, of 
5 to many laciniated lobes, with their segments clavated, unequal. 
Anthers linear, sessile, extrorsely attached a little below the acumi- 
nate apex, to the mouth of corolla; only the points visible above 
the tube. Ovary fleshy, 2-celled; style included; stigma large, bi- 
partite. Fruit black, size of a small cherry, ovoid-oblong, 1.25 cm. 
in diameter, not broader than long, didymous when 2-seeded ; pedicel 
short. 

Diagnostic Characters of the Species: — Twigs brown or whitish. 
Leaves usually broadly-elliptic with very greatly narrowed obtuse 
point, green when dry; petiole very short. Two subulate leaf-like 
bracts at the base of each flower. Calyx-limb with many, commonly 
ten, glandular teeth. Fruit not broader than long. 

Synonymy: — Coffea Horsfieldiana Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 2 (1856- 
1859) 308. — Valeton in Bull. Inst. Bot. Buitenz. 7 (1901) 17. 

Common Name: — Kath-jahi (Hindu). 

Geographical Distribution: — Central and Southern India; Burma; 
Tropical Himalaya, from Kumaon to Mishmi up to 900 M.; Bengal; 
Assam; Silhet; Chittagong; Tenasserim (lower half); Siam; Java; 
Samarang (Miquel). 

History: — Coffea bengaletisis Heyne ex Roem. and Schult. of the 
eastern tropics is much more widely distributed than its close allies 
Coffea Wiffhtiana Wall., Coffea fragrans Wall, ex Hook, f., and 
Coffea travancorensis Wight and Arn. This species was cultivated 
on a large scale prior to the introduction of Coffea arabica L. It 
produces small beans of an inferior value and is no longer culti- 
vated extensively, although used by the natives wherever it is found 
locally. 

Use: — As a substitute for Coffea arabica L. 

Bibliography: — Roxb. Hort. Bengal. (1814) 15. — Heyne ex Roem. 
and Schult. Syst. Veg. 5 (1819) 200. — Roth Nov. Spec. (1821) 148. — 
Moon Cat. PI. Ceylon (1824) 15.— Roxb. Fl. Ind. 2 (1824) 194.— 
Spreng. Syst. Veg. i (1825) 755. — DC. Prodr. 4 (1830) 499. — Wall. 
Cat. (1832) no. 6244. — Roxb. Fl. Ind. ed. 2, i (1832) 540. — Don G. 
Gen. Hist. Dichlam. PL 3 (1834) 581.— Wight and Arn. Prodr. i 
(1834) 435.— Bot. Mag. 82 (1856) t. 4917.— Miq. Ann. Mus. Lugd. 



ti 



■!l I 




vi 448452 V 



UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 



C«u- *i«ri- 



«urt,i« of iqnnUtuit. rtlaiiila. 






PLATE 10: COFFEA BENGALENSIS 

HEYNE EX ROEM. & SCHULT. 

Mature branch. 

26 



EUCOFFEA HOOK. F. 27 

Bat. 4 (1868-1869) 258.— Brandis For. Fl. (1874) 277.— Kurz For. 
Fl. Brit. Burma 2 (1877) 28.— Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 3 (1882) 153.— 
Burck in Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 4 (1884) 57 t. 6, f. 53. — Reprint 
from Gardener's Chronicle in Trop. Agric. 8 (1889) 860. — Burck's 
Mss. transl. by Herzsohn in Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 8 (1890) 149 t. 
23, f. I. — Froehner in Notizbl. d. Kgl. Bot. Mus. 7 (1897) 231. — 
Schum. K. in Engl, and Prantl Nat. Pflanzenfam. 4, Abt. 4, Nachtr. 
(1897) 315- — Raoul Cult. Cafeier in Man. Cult. Trop. de Raoul and 
Sagot pt. I, 2 (1897) 241. — Froehner in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 25 (1898) 
255. — Lecomte Le Cafe (1899) 14. — Valeton in Bull. Inst. Bot. Buitenz. 
7 (1901) 10, 16, 20-25. — Cornaillac El Cafe, la Vainilla, el Cacao, 
etc. (1903) 17. — Brandis Ind. Trees ed. i (Third Impression) (1911) 
390. — Bailey Stand. Cycl. Hort. 2 (1914) 823. 

Economic and Cultural References: — Raoul Cult. Cafeier in Man. 
Cult. Trop. de Raoul and Sagot pt. i, 2 (1897) 241-242. — Sebire Les 
PI. Util. Senegal (1899) I79- — Hartwich Die Menschlich. Genuszm. 
(1911) 274. — Gamble Man. Ind. Timbers ed. 2 (1922) 422. 

Coffea racemosa Lour. Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 145. 

A small, greatly branched tree about 1.2 metres high. Branches 
diffused, terete. Leaves opposite, ovate-lanceolate, scabrous; petiole 
short. Flowers subterminal, in erect racemes, brachiate; common 
peduncle long, 4-sided, the individual pedicels shorter, terete. Fruit 
subglobose, small, red, w^atery, 2-seeded; seeds hemispherical. 

Diagnostic Characters of the Species: — ^This species is in young 
fruit from July to September. Mature fruits are w^atery. The 
leaves are scattered with numerous tubercles. 

Synonymy: — Coffea ramosa Roem. and Schult. Syst. Veg. i (1819) 
198. — Rudgea racemosa Spreng. Syst. Veg. i (1825) 755. — Coffea 
mozambicana DC. Prodr. 4 (1830) 500. — Hexepta racemosa Raf. 
Sylva Tellur. (1838) 164. 

Geographical Distribution : — Mozambique Island, Loureiro. 

History: — C. racemosa Lour, has been known since 1790. It is 
narrowly localized in distribution. 

Use: — Mainly as a local substitute for the seeds of C. arabica L. 

Bibliography: — Lour. Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 145 (not C. racemosa 
Ruiz and Pavon (1799)). — Spreng. Syst. Veg. i (1825) 756. — DC. 
Prodr. 4 (1830) 500. — Hiern in Trans. Linn. Soc. ser. 2, i (1876) 
175; in Oliver Fl. Trop. Afr. 3 (1877) 185. — Froehner in Notizbl. d. 
Kgl. Bot. Mus. 7 (1897) 231; K. Schum. in Engl, and Prantl Nat. 
Pflanzenfam. 4, Abt. 4, Nachtr. (1897) 3i5- — Froehner in Engl. 
Bot. Jahrb. 25 (1898) 253, 272. — Lecomte Le Cafe (1899) 39. — Raoul, 



28 COFFEE 

Cult. Cafeier in Man. Cult. Trop. de Raoul & Sagot pt. i, 2 (1897) 
229, 237. — Cornaillac El Cafe, la Vainilla, el Cacao, etc. (1903) 35. 
Economic and Cultural Reference: — Sebire PI. Util. Senegal (1899) 
179. 

Coffea I bo Froehner in Notizbl. d. Kgl. Bot. Mus. 7 (1897) 

231-234. 

A thickly branched shrub bearing gray-white, longitudinally fis- 
sured bark. Branches numerous; short lateral branches bear, at 
moderately enlarged nodes, 2-6-flowered fascicles which appear prior 
to the leaves or before the leaves reach maturity. Leaves 4 to 4.7 
cm. wide by 8 to 9.5 cm. long, develop only weakly up to flowering- 
time, obovate or ovate, with a short obtuse tip ; leaf-lamina dull, 
darker above than below, glabrous, attenuated at the base into the 
petiole; 5-7 veins of first rank are distinct, other venation only 
faintly visible. Flowers and fruit occur on the same branches at 
the same time; flowers 6-partite, subtended at the base of the short 
pedicel by an indistinctly quadridentate, villose, circular bract ; corolla 
2.4 cm. long, tube 0.9 cm. long; lobes flat, broadened, obtusely-lan- 
ceolate, 1.5 cm. long. Anthers i.o cm. long. Style 1.7 cm. long, 
and extends beyond the corolla-tube; calyx 7-8-toothed, extending 
well above the calyculus. Fruit i cm. long by 0.6 cm. wide; fruit, 
when dry, is light brown, with 5 longitudinal fissures on each half; 
pedicel short; fruit crowned with a scanty but clearly toothed calyx- 
margin; seed small 0.3 to 0.4 cm. wide by 0.6 cm. long, flat or 
narrowly bead-like in form, light yellowish-green, narrows at each 
extremity. Stone-cells very numerous in the testa. Caffeine-con- 
tent of seed is 0.795%. 

Diagnostic Characters of the Species: — Fruit with 10 longitudinal 
fissures; seed small. Coffea I bo Froehner distinguishes itself from 
other species in the Mozambique such as Coffea racemosa of Lour, 
by the barren, not warty, leaves and the short lateral branches bear- 
ing flower-clusters. It is difFerentiated from Coffea Zanquebarice 
Lour., which it resembles in the long veined fruit, by the thin con- 
sistency and indistinct venation of the leaves and the large number 
of flowers in a fascicle. The supposition that it is derived from 
Coffea Zanquebaria Lour., which has slender and pointed seeds, has 
not been confirmed by study. 

Common Name: — Ibo Coffee. 



EUCOFFEA HOOK. F. 29 

Geographical Distribution: — East African Tropics; Mozambique. 

History: — The seeds of this species first appeared on the German 
southeast African market in 1893 and on a small island, belonging 
to Portugal, called Ibo which is about 12° South Latitude and from 
which it derives its name "Ibo Coffee." Specimens of the plant 
were sent by Prof. Henriques and Inspector Moller to the Botanical 
Museum in Berlin. It is mentioned in the Notizbl. d. Kgl. Bot. 
Mus. 5 (1895) but was not described until 1897. The beans ap- 
pear to be immature because of their inferior size and the slightly 
thickened endosperm. 

Use: — It has been recently taken in cultivation in its native local- 
ities as a substitute for C. arabica L. 

Bibliography: — Froehner in Notizbl. d. Kgl. Bot. Mus. 7 (1897) 
231-234. — K. Schum. in Engl, and Prantl Nat. Pflanzenfam. 4, Abt. 4, 
Nachtr. (1897) 3i5- — Froehner in Engler Bot. Jahrb. 25 (1898) 272. 
— Lecomte Le Cafe (1899) 36. — Cornaillac El Cafe, la Vainilla, el 
Cacao, etc. (1903) 34. — Engler-Gilg Syllab. Pflanzenf. ed. 8 (1919) 
339. 

Economic and Cultural Reference: — Hartwich Die Menschlichen 
Genuszm. (1911) 273, 825. 

Coffea stenophylla G. Don Gen. Syst. 3 (1834) 581. 

An evergreen shrub or small tree from 1.2 to 6.0 M., glabrous, 
glossy; stem about 3 M. in tree-like specimens, and 32.5 cm. in 
diameter at the base. Bark grey, smooth. Branches slender, terete, 
compressed toward the extremities, the lower ones irregularly scat- 
tered, the upper ones opposite, leafy. Leaves 3.75 cm. to 15 cm. 
long by 0.5 cm. to 3.75 cm. wide, 6 to 10 pairs of lateral veins 
of the first rank inconspicuous above, marked on the lower surface 
with small, white, perforated glands in the axils; leaf-lamina bright 
green and glossy above, paler beneath; leaves of youngest shoots are 
pinkish; mature leaves elliptic-oblong or obovate, caudate-acuminate, 
cuneate at the base, subcoriaceous, somewhat undulated on the mar- 
gin; petiole 0.2 cm. to 0.41 cm. long; stipules apiculate from a 
broadly ovate or subtruncate, connate base; stipules rather exceed- 
ing the small, pale green, subentire calyx-limb which barely exceeds 
the disk. Flowers white, large, 1.5 cm. to 2.2 cm. long before 
expansion, 0.83 cm. to 0.93 cm. after expansion, 2.5 cm. to 3.75 cm. 
across expanded corolla-lobes; corolla 6-8-partite; lobes oblong or 



30 COFFEE 

oval, obtuse, 0.75 cm. wide by 1.5 cm. long, spreading; corolla-tube 
0.62 cm. long. Anthers wholly exserted, fixed at one third their 
length above their base, 3 times the length of the filaments which 
are 0.62 cm. to 0.93 cm. long. Style nearly equal to the unex- 
panded flower, bifid; lobes narrowly linear. Berry prolate-spher- 
oidal or globose, 1.25 cm. in diameter, black when ripe; pedicel short; 
seeds 0.83 cm. long, hemispherical, with narrow ventral furrow. 

Diagnostic Characters of the Species: — The leaves are marked on 
the lower surface by small, white, punctured glands in the axils of 
the veins. The youngest leaf-shoots are pink. 

Synonymy: — Coffea arabica Benth. (non Linn.) in Hook. Niger 

Fl. (1849) 413. 

Common Names: — Highland Coffee; Native Coffee; Sierra Leone 
Coffee; Bush Coffee; Wild Coffee; Upland Coffee; Rio-Nunez 
Coffee. 

Geographical Distribution: — Upper Guinea, Angola, Abyssinia; 
West Africa, Sierra Leone. Introduced into the English colonies 
in 1895-1896. 

History: — Coffea stenophylla G. Don was discovered by Afzelius 
a century and a quarter ago. It was described and published in 
1834 by G. Don who collected specimens in Sierra Leone. It is an 
interesting economic species since it is the only indigenous West 
African species excepting C. lib erica Bull which may rival C. arabica 
L. commercially. The beans are said, by both the natives and the 
French merchants, to be superior to those of all other species. At 
Freetown, it is preferred to the seeds of C. liberica Bull. It has 
been shipped to France and sold as best Mocha. The plant thrives 
on gneissose or granitic soil and grows best from 500 to 2000 feet 
elevation, but may grow well from sea level to 5000 feet elevation. 
Higher elevations seem to tend to improve the quality of the berry 
and reduce the vigor of the plant. Seeds were sent to the Royal 
Botanic Gardens at Kew, England, in May, 1894, by Sir Wm. H. 
Quayle Jones, late Chief Justice of the West African Settlements 
and Deputy Governor of Sierra Leone. These plants flowered in 
one of the tropical houses in September, 1895. Seeds and plants 
were distributed to Indian Botanic Institutions and to the other 
English colonies, where it is now cultivated. It produces excellent 
coffee-beans although it has not thriven as well as could be desired 




3 -^^^rj 







PLATE 11: COFFEA STENOPHYLLA G. DON 

From Kew. Bull. (1896) 190. 

1, Portion of Leaf — showing lower surface and glands. 2. Pistil. 

3. Portion of Corolla with Stamens, laid open. 4. Vertical section 

of Ovary showing Ovules. 5. Fruit. 6. Seed. 7. Transverse 

section of Seed. 8. Vertical section of Seed. 9. Embryo. 

31 



32 COFFEE 

at Dominica and Ceylon. Many plants appear to be out of their 
proper environment; and their irregular growth suggests that the 
climate is not advantageous. It seems, however, to have a greater 
resistance to the coffee-leaf disease than C. arabica L. It has also 
been introduced into the West Indies. The chief vernacular name 
"Highland Coffee of Sierra Leone" is due to Dr. Daniell. The caf- 
feine-content of the seeds varies from 1.52% to 1.7%. C. steno- 
phylla G. Don gives a rather poor yield which has diminished its 
cultivation considerably. When young it is susceptible to the dis- 
ease known as Cercospora cojfeicola nearly as readily as varieties of 
C. arabica L. ; but, when well grown, the plants are not seriously 
affected. 

Bibliography: — Don Gen. Syst. 3 (1834) 581. — Hiern in Trans. 
Linn. Soc. ser. 2, i (1876) 172; in Oliver Fl. Trop. Afr. 3 (1877) 
182. — Kew Bull. (1893) 167; (1896) 189-191; (1897) 304; (1919) 57; 
Nigeria 3 (1915) 367. — Elliott Col. Rep. Misc. No. 3 (1893) 35. — 
Report Direct. Roy. Bot. Gard. Ceylon (1895). — Report Direct. Bot. 
Gard. & Forest Dep't. Straits Settlem. (1895). — Reprint from Proc. 
Agric. Hort. Soc. Madras in Trop. Agric. 15 (1895) 194. — Bot. Mag. 
122 (1896) t. 7475. — Hart in Ann. Rep. Roy. Bot. Gard. Trinidad 
(1896) 13. — Froehner in Notizbl. d. Kgl. Bot. Mus. 7 (1897) 233. — 
K. Schum. in Engl. & Prantl Nat. Pflanzenfam. 4, Abt. 4, Nachtr. (1897) 
315. — Raoul Cult. Cafeier in Man. Cult. Trop. de Raoul & Sagot pt. 
I, 2 (1897) 229, 232.— Ann. Rep. Bot. Gard. Old Calabar Mss. (1898). 
— Lecomte Le Cafe (1899) 27-31. — Cornaillac El Cafe, la Vainilla, 
el Cacao, etc. (1903) 31. — Jumelle Les Cult. Col. PL Aliment, i (1901) 
385. — DeWild. Les Cafeiers i (1901) 41. — Valeton in Bull. Inst. Bot. 
Buitenz. 7 (1901) 15. — Chev. Les Cafeiers sauv. de la Guin. fran^. in 
Compt. Rend. 140 (1905) 1472-1475. — DeWild. & Mission E. Laur. 
3 (1906) 340 t. 62, 63, 64. — Engl. & Gilg Syll, Pflanzenfam. ed. 8 

(1919) 33,9. 

Economic and Cultural References: — Article in Teysmannia, Batavia 
18 (1907) 292 f. 15, ff. 16-17 (Hybrids, C. stenophylla G. Don C. 
liberica Bull). Freeman & Chandler Com. Prod. (1907) 181. — 
Fauchere Cult. Prat. Cafeier (1908) 7. — Watt Com. Prod. India (1908) 
390. — Dudgeon Agric. & For. Prod. Brit. W. Afr. (1911) 35. — Hart- 
wich Die Menschlich. Genuszm. (1911) 273, 300. — Van Wijk Diet. 
PI. Names l (1911) 346. — Perrot Travaux du Lab. Mat. Med. de 
I'Ecole Super, de Pharm. de Paris pt. 5, 10 (1913-1916) No. 3, 
pg. 9. — Bailey Stand. Cycl. Hort. 2 (1914) 823. — Perrot Les Grand. 
Prod. Veget. d. Col. frang. (191 5) 423-424. 

C off ea arabica h. Sp. PI. ed. i (1753) 172. 

A beautiful, glabrous, glossy shrub or small tree attaining 4.5 to 
5.5 metres. Bark thin, grey. Wood white, moderately hard and 



MissioN Em Laorent. 




" N 


/ 


\ j 


r^' 


\ \ 




\ 1 


; 



«,v^,«. J'Aj.r..,i. 



Ski!* Mi>»t. ?»rti 



PLATE 12: COFFEA STENOPHYLLA G. DON 

From DeWild. & Miss. Em. Laur. 3 (1906) 340 t. 63. 

1. Flowering Branch. 2. Fruiting Branch. 3. Fruit. 
4. Portion of Leaf: Lower Surface with Glands. 

33 



34 COFFEE 

closely grained. Pores very fine. Wood rays very fine, numerous, 
short. Branches terete or at the extremities rather compressed. 
Leaves borne in pairs, usually papery in texture, 7.5 cm. to 20 cm. 
long by 3.2 cm. to 7.5 cm. wide, oval or elliptical, acuminate, 
cuneate at the base, subcoriaceous, evergreen and usually persisting 
for three years, somewhat undulated at the margin; 7-12 paired 
lateral veins of first rank; petiole O.41 cm. to 1.25 cm. long; stipules 
broadly ovate, apiculate, connate at the base, 0.41 cm. to 0.62 cm. 
long. Flowers fragrant, 1.25 cm. to 1.87 cm. long just prior to 
expansion, about half as long after expansion, subsessile or very 
shortly pedicellate, 2 to 9 or more together in very short, axillary 
or lateral bracteolate clusters; bracteoles ovate, the inner ones con- 
nate at the base of the pedicels, falling short of the shallow sub- 
truncate or obtusely 5-denticulate calyx-limb; corolla white; lobes 
oval, obtuse or mucronulate, equalling or exceeding the corolla-tube, 
spreading. Anthers rather shorter than the corolla-lobes, wholly 
exserted, fixed rather below the middle to the filaments which are 
about half as long as the anther. Disk glabrous. Style about equalling 
the unexpanded flower, bifid ; lobes linear, narrower toward the tip. 
Berry ellipsoidal, 0.93 cm. to 1.25 cm. long at first green, then red, 
and at length blue-black; chartaceous integument ("parchment skin") 
usually thin; seeds 0.83 cm. long. Caffeine-content of seeds varies 
from 0.69 to 1.6%. 

Diagnostic Characters of the Species: — ^At least four flowers in 
a fascicle. Leaves evergreen or perennial, ovate or elliptical, with 
pointed apex, and 9 to 12 first-rank veins in the leaf lamina. Gamo- 
sepalous calyx with a short 5-denticulate margin. 

Synonymy: — Cojfea vulgaris Moench Meth. PL (1794) 504. — 
Coffea laurifolis Salisb. Prodr. (1796) 62. — Cojfea moka Hort. ex 
Heynh. Nom. 2 (1846) 153. 

Common names: — Arabian Coffee; Maragogype Coffee; Moka or 
Mocha Coffee; Blue Mountain Coffee; Chato Coffee; Common 
Coffee; Nalknad Coffee; Peaberry Coffee. 

Dialect names of the East: — See in Appendix A, 'Eastern Dialect 
Terms Synonymous with Coffee,' page 220 et seq. 

Geographical Distribution : — Abyssinia, Nile Land, Angola, Upper 
Guinea, Lower Guinea, Mozambique Coast; Sierra Leone; Arabia. 
Now widely cultivated following its introduction into the Celebes 



EUCOFFEA HOOK. F. 35 

(Prov. Menado), Sumatra, Java, Queensland, Philippines, West 
Indies, and throughout tropical India and South America. 

History: — Coffea arabica L. has always been the source of the 
great bulk of the coffee utilized in world consumption. It is indige- 
nous to Abyssinia, Soudan, Guinea, and Mozambique. A survey of 
Arabic literature reveals the fact that coffee was not mentioned in 
the Koran; nor do the Hebrew Scriptures contain any allusion to 
it. It would seem that the plant and its use was known only to the 
African natives until it was carried into Arabia, probably during 
the fourteenth century, A.D. ; for travellers of the thirteenth cen- 
tury make no mention of it. 

The pericarp of the coffee-fruit contains sugar. The preparation 
obtained from the succulent pulp of the coffee fruit or so-called cherry 
was called Kahw^h which was the common term for wine. If the 
preparation is allowed to stand, it becomes alcoholic. The theory 
is held by some authors that the original Arabian coffee-beverage 
was distinctly an intoxicating drink. The art of roasting the beans 
and preparing a decoction from them was discovered soon after 
their introduction into the countries bordering on Arabia. This 
discovery was possibly made in Persia. Although non-alcoholic, 
this bitter beverage was called Kahwah. 

The use of coffee-seeds was known, although not generally prac- 
tised, in Europe some time previous to 1554; for in that year 
Ramusio, in his ''Raccolta delle Navigationi e Viaggi," speaks of coffee 
as if it were well known at that period. Clusius ^ was the first 
botanist to describe coffee-berries. Prosper Alpino ^ mentions a drink 
made from a fruit which was called Buna and sold in the taverns 
of Cairo and throughout the Turkish Dominions in the place of 
wine, and was called Caova. Alpino saw living coffee-shrubs in 
Egypt. Rauwolff ^ saw the seeds and the beverage in Syria, where 
it was referred to as Chaube. It was a decoction from the seeds of 
an Arabian tree. 

The use of the coffee-beverage was well established throughout 
the Eastern Mediterranean countries for two centuries prior to its 
general use in Europe about the middle of the seventeenth century. 

* Clusius Arom. Hist. Garcia de Orta (1574) 214-215. 

* Alpino De Plant. Aegypti ed. i (1592) 2^. 
^Rauwolff Reise in die Morgenlander (1582) 102. 



36 COFFEE 

According to Parkinson, who refers to it as the 'Turkes berry drinke' 
in his book entitled "Theatrum Botanicum" which was published in 
1640, ''This drinke hath many good Physicall properties therein: 
for it strengtheneth a weake stomache, helping digestion and the 
tumours and obstructions of the liver and spleene, being drunke 
fasting for some time together. The Egiptian and Arabian women 
use it familiarly while their courses hold, to cause them to passe away 
with the more ease, as also to cause those to flow that are stayed, 
their bodies being prepared and purged aforehand." The 1735 edition 
of Alpino by Vesling speaks of the coffee-berries sold in Egypt as 
crystallized coffee cherries. The ''Krauter-Buch" (1678) 788, by 
Verzascha, states that the husks of the berries make a stronger in- 
fusion than the seeds. One finds that the name of coffe was used 
synonymously with coho in ancient literature. Coho, which is merely 
a variant of kahwah, was applied originally to the drink prepared 
from C. arahica L. pulp instead of an infusion of the seeds. The 
Arabs of Yemen abstained from the use of coffee as prepared from 
the roasted and ground seeds in the present European and American 
fashion; but they powdered the sun-dried pericarp and prepared a 
favorite beverage called kischer, gischr, or qischr, which was aroma- 
tized with ginger or other spices. The resulting drink was stimula- 
tive and as popular as quat, the favorite stimulant of Yemen Arabs, 
which was prepared from the leaves of Catha edulis Forsk. {Celas- 
trus edulis Vahl.) 

Coffee was known as a drug prior to its general use as a beverage. 
Records compiled by La Roque * and Ellis ^ state that Abu Abdallah 
Muhammad Dhabbani Ibn Said visited Persia, Africa, and Abyssinia 
during the fifteenth century, and found the people using coffee as a 
beverage; and upon his return to Aden, Arabia, he continued to 
drink coffee and recommended his followers to substitute it for 
their common beverage kdt. From Aden, the use of C. arabica L. 
seeds spread to Mecca, Medina, Cairo, Damascus, Aleppo, and finally 
to Constantinople in 1554. The use of coffee was introduced into 
Syria a few years previous to its use in Constantinople. Dr. Russell 
in his book entitled "The Natural History of Aleppo," which was 
published in 1794, informs us that, in Constantinople and less com- 

■* La Roque Voy. L'Arab. Heureuse (1716) 323. 
^ Ellis Monogr. Coffee (1774) S. 



EUCOFFEA HOOK. F. 37 

monly at Aleppo, coffee was used to wash down opium when taken in 
pill form or in broken bits. During the sixteenth, seventeenth, and 
eighteenth centuries, the ladies of Aleppo and Constantinople fre- 
quented the public baths which were referred to as the Bagnio or 
Hummann. Coffee was served there, as the women remained for 
some time in the Bagnio, where they enjoyed drinking coffee, chatting, 
and bathing. Dashing water upon one another was a common frolic, 
and the Fouta or wrapper was easily dropped by accident or drawn 
aside in sport, and, should the girl happen to be carrying a cup of 
coffee at the time, she often continued and served it without stooping 
to recover her Fouta. This is the explanation of the fact that the 
women were sometimes seen in the Bagnio, walking about in the nude 
state as they carried coffee. In Aleppo, as throughout the East, 
coffee was always served without sugar. It was served extremely 
hot in a china cup which was placed in a silver under-cup to protect 
the fingers. People of the higher ranks of society partook of a 
half cup of strong coffee at a time. It was the custom of the com- 
mon people to fill their cups to the brim with a weaker coffee. If 
a Turkish gentleman happened to awaken during the night and was 
unable to sleep, it was his custom to sit up in bed and drink coffee, 
after which he would smoke until he fell asleep. Coffee was drunk 
at all meals and was presented at the same time as the pipe at all 
social visits, so that many people drank twenty cups daily. Such was 
the popularity and excessive use of coffee in Turkey and Arabia at this 
period. 

The Christians of Constantinople seem to have been the first to 
have added sugar to the beverage. It was formerly the custom of 
the Sultan to add a drop of the essence of amber to each cup of coffee.*^ 
Some of the Turks and Persians boiled their coffee with a little 
badiana, a species of anise which they imported from India and 
which the Turks called badianindi. Others added two cloves cut 
into pieces, cinnamon, cumin seeds, or some cacouleh, a seed of 
cardamom. To-day (l'924) coffee is taken among all Orientals in 
the morning and at all meals as well as at every social visit during 
the day. It is served in cups called fingians, which are much smaller 
than our familiar American or European coffee-cup. They do not 

^La Roque Voy. L'Arab. Heureuse (1716) 360, 



38 COFFEE 

fill the cup, and no spoons are served, as sugar and milk are not 
added. The average Oriental consumes ten to twelve cups of 
strong coffee each day. 

Coffee-drinking was first repressed in 151 1 by the Viceroy of the 
Sultan of Egypt (then Governor of Mecca) on the ground that it 
was a wine. In 1524, the coffee-houses of Mecca were closed by 
the Kadi. In 1533, the citizens of Cairo were divided into two fac- 
tions, namely, those who used coffee and the abstainers. In 1554, the 
coffee-houses of Constantinople were closed on the pretext that 
charred seeds were charcoal. Coal was forbidden as a food by the 
Mahometan religion. 

The use of coffee-seeds extended to Venice in 161 5; and in 1644 
Peter della Valle carried coffee-beans to Marseilles. Later, coffee 
made its way throughout France and England. The coffee-plant was 
not introduced for cultivation into countries outside of Arabia until 
about 1700. In 1690, the world's supply came from Arabia and 
Abyssinia. In the same year, seeds were taken to Batavia; and soon 
afterward a plant was carried to Amsterdam. About this time, the 
Dutch introduced coffee-plants into Java. Coffee was possibly intro- 
duced into Ceylon by the Arabs prior to the Portuguese invasion. 
In any case, the Dutch started to cultivate coffee there between 
1690 and 1700. In 1712, a seedling plant was given to Louis XIV 
by Ressons of Holland. This plant bore fruit and died. In 17 14, 
Brancas of Amsterdam, presented Louis XIV with a coffee-tree. 
The introduction of the coffee-plant into America was accomplished 
in 1717-1720 by Louis XIV, who commissioned M. Desclieux, 
Lieutenant of the King, to transport a seedling into Martinique in 
the West Indies. M. Desclieux deprived himself of a large por- 
tion of his water allowance aboard ship in order that the plant might 
survive the journey. This plant, together with later seedlings from 
the two plants presented to Louis XIV, became the ancestors of 
American coffee-trees. In 1722, a coffee-plant was brought from the 
City of Cayenne, French Guiana, to Para, Brazil. A secondary 
introduction into Java was made by the Portuguese in 1723. In 
1732, Sir Nicholas Lawes established it in Jamaica. Coffee was 
taken into Rio de Janeiro in 1774 by a Belgian monk named Molke, 
who procured his plants from the Maranhao district of Brazil. He 
planted the first ones in the garden of the Capuchin monastery of 



EUCOFFEA HOOK. F. 39 

Adjuda, which is in the center of the city. Molke and Joachim 
Bruneo, the then Bishop of Rio de Janeiro, distributed the seeds 
produced in the monastery garden to neighboring religious institu- 
tions and to the laity. From this simple beginning, the millions 
of coffee-trees under cultivation in Brazil had their origin. The date 
of the introduction of C. arabica L. into India is obscure. Although 
probably introduced into India early in the eighteenth century, it 
is certain that coffee-plants reached there early in the nineteenth 
century. The first systematic plantation was started near Chik- 
muglur by Mr. Cannon in 1830. 

Hemileia vastatrix which devastated the coffee-industry in Cey- 
lon, appeared in i'869 ; and by 1887 this fungal disease of the leaves 
had ruined the coffee-plantations. The coffee-plantations of Ceylon, 
India, Java, Sumatra, Celebes, and the Philippine Islands have been 
attacked by Hemileia vastatrix. The disease is watched by coffee- 
growers, and every possible means of control is used to check its 
spread and to prevent its introduction into other coffee-growing 
countries. 

C. arabica L. still produces the great bulk of the world's coffee- 
supply. Its seeds are the basis of the coffee-beverage the world over. 
Many varieties have arisen. The ones of economic importance are 
those listed on pages 48-50 under the Key to the Varieties. 

C. arabica L. is an excellent example of the effect of human agency 
upon the economic history of a plant. This species was transferred 
from its original home and became a staple crop in widely separated 
regions of the tropics. Its introduction has met with such satisfac- 
tory results in Brazil that that country is now the chief source of 
the coffee of commerce. 

Uses: — C. arabica L. is the chief source of the coffee-beverage. 
The beverage is ohtained from the roasted and ground seeds which 
are prepared by infusion, decoction or boiling, or filtration by use 
of a percolator. 

Coffee-Leaf: — In Sumatra, the coffee-leaves have been used in the 
preparation of a beverage at least since 1850. The leaves, as well 
as the seeds, contain caffeine. The natives prefer an infusion of 
the leaves to that of the seeds. The leaves are never rolled as are 
tea leaves. They are roasted over a fire of dry bamboo or other 
wood which produces very little smoke. They become a buff color 



40 COFFEE 

when sufficiently roasted, and are then ground to powder. The 
leaves are used in the same way as coffee-beans in preparing the drink. 
In Africa, they are used in the same manner as tea-leaves. 

Coffee-Wood : — The wood of Coffea arabica L. is one of the most 
compact and durable in the interior of Africa and is well-suited 
for furniture manufacture such as chairs, tables, bedsteads, etc., as 
well as for various articles of turnery. It takes an excellent and 
very durable polish. The African name in Golungo Alto and in 
Cazengo is Muriabambe or Muria Nbarnba^ which is composed of 
the words 'Muria meaning good and 'Nbambe meaning antelope, 
because a species of antelope in those regions shows a preference 
for the leaves of this tree. 

Coffee-Pulp : — In some localities of Persia and Turkey, the pulp 
of the coffee-berry is dried and roasted. The resulting bitter prepara- 
tion is known as Sultana Coffee. This term also frequently refers 
to a weak decoction of the raw beans. In Arabia, the pulp is allowed 
to dry intact, and is then removed from the seeds and used to pre- 
pare a pleasant infusion called Kisher or Kahwe. Sometimes Orient- 
als use both the pulp and the bean in preparing coffee, and they 
assert that it is better than the use of the beans alone. 

The mature pulp is mucilaginous, saccharine, glutinous, succulent, 
sweet, and palatable, and is often eaten by the pickers. The ripe 
pulp of the fruit contains sugar which is converted into alcohol. 
This source of alcohol is used in a limited area. Eight ounces of 
dried pulp, when steeped in water until fermentation begins, yield 
one ounce of spirits by distillation. The thoroughly fermented coffee- 
pulp serves as an excellent agricultural manure. It is rich in 
phosphoric acid and phosphates; and its effect as a manure is of two 
to three years' duration. This use of the coffee-pulp is increasing, 
and will become of commercial importance. It is preferable to 
the Peruvian guano because coffee-pulp contains eighty-five per cent 
of azole. Fermented coffee-pulp is frequently mixed with well-rotted 
dung. It is also used as a vehicle for the application of concentrated 
fertilizers. Coffee-pulp has been suggested by Dr. Schortt as an 
auxiliary to cattle-food. 

Coffee-Oil : — Coffee does contain a volatile oil ; but the term 
'coffee oil' is a misleading trade name for a palm oil which is derived 
from the more or less burnt kernels which have the odor of coffee. 



EUCOFFEA HOOK. F. 41 

Coffee in Medicine and its Effect on the Human System: — His- 
torical: — Many virtues have been attributed to coffee. Bradley ' 
mentions it as advantageous in cases of headache, vertigo, lethargy, 
coughs, and even tuberculosis. Arabian and Egyptian women drank 
coffee during their period of menses with good effect, and also dur- 
ing pregnancy in the belief that the infant would not be troubled 
with worms during its youth. It was considered helpful to persons 
afflicted with rheumatism or gout; and it was thought that coffee 
defended the body from pestilential infection. Ellis ^ stated that 
coffee was used for its antisoporific effect. One learns from Roques ® 
that coffee was beneficial in cases of spasmodic asthma, fevers, and was 
very efficacious in cases of chlorosis in young women. Coffee was 
much used, in Turkey and Arabia,^° as an antidote for the narcotic 
effects of opium. The habitual use of the beverage was considered 
to act as a preventive against gout and gravel. It is of interest to 
note that in France and especially in Turkey and Arabia where 
coffee is used by all the inhabitants, these diseases are practically 
unknown. Dewces recommended the use of coffee in cases of cholera 
infantum and even in cholera. ^^ Dr. Guillasse ^^ of the French 
Navy reported that in the early stages of typhoid fever, he prescribed 
coffee as almost a specific. In India,^^ unroasted coffee-infusions 
were used as a substitute for quinine in cases of intermittent fever 
and roasted coffee was used as a fragrant and effective deodorizer and 
minor antiseptic in the hospital wards. Coffee has been used ^^ in 
chronic diarrhoea and, being less astringent than tea, does not cause 
constipation as readily. 

Present Knowledge: — The effects of an infusion of coffee and 
the physiological action which results from hypodermic injections 
or other experimental methods with caffeine are not comparable as 
certain volatile constituents (caffeone) are developed during torre- 
fication. The facts stated below have reference only to the use of 
the coffee-beverage. 

Hot coffee, when prepared from the freshly roasted and ground 
seeds, is deodorant, antiseptic, and germicidal. An infusion of one- 

^ Bradley Virtue and Use of Coffee etc. (1721) 2a-2'^ 
« Ellis Hist. Acc't. Coffee (1774) 39. ^ ^ ^ o- 

•Roques Phytographie Med. 2 (1821) 52. 
"Heraud Nouv. Diet. PI. Med. ed. 2 (1884) 148. 
^^Watt Diet. Econ. Prod. Ind. 2 (1889) 488-489. 



42 COFFEE 

half per cent will inhibit the growth of many pathogenic organ- 
isms. A ten per cent infusion will kill anthrax bacilli in three 
hours, cholera spirilla in four hours, and most other bacteria in two 
to six days.^^ Green coffee-infusions do not possess this antiseptic 
action which is probably due to the empyreumatic products developed 
during roasting. 

Coffee is a cerebrospinal stimulant, promotes wakefulness, and 
gives relief from fatigue and hunger. The comfortable feeling pro- 
duced by a cup of coffee is due to the volatile oils which have 
a carminative effect.^^ In collapse, hot coffee may be administered 
by the mouth or by the rectum.^* Coffee is said to increase the peris- 
taltic movements of the intestine ^^ and therefore acts as a laxative.^^ 
Experimentation has convinced the author that a tincture of raw 
coffee is a more efficient diuretic than the infusion from the roasted 
bean. This action is useful in medicine, as diuresis serves to remove 
toxins which are secreted by the kidneys and may be used to lessen 
the action of such metals as mercury and lead.^^ Coffee as a diuretic 
is also useful in dropsy. 

Coffee taken in moderation assists digestion by increasing secre- 
tory activity ; but, used to excess, it may cause irritation of the mucous 
membrane.^^ The coffee-beverage, when prepared from the roasted 
beans, produces wakefulness and brief stimulation of the intellect. 
This effect is not produced by an infusion of green coffee.^^ Exces- 
sively roasted coffee-beans produce a bitter beverage which induces 
irritation and super-mental excitement resulting in sick headaches 
and insomnia. By stimulating physiological activity, coffee increases 
tissue-waste and promotes the formation and excretion of urea.^^ 
Observation of a large number of individuals indicates that coffee 
agrees especially with stout, phlegmatic, and catarrhal persons. It 
is not as advantageous to bilious individuals or to those who possess an 
excessively nervous temperament. Experimentation has shown the 
author that strong coffee lessens the effects of alcoholic beverages, 
and that, in cases of light nervous headaches not due to gastric dis- 
orders, it is immediately effectual. 

Although caffeine is not in common use in medicine, it has value 

'^Potter Therapeutics. Mat. Med. & Pharm. ed. 12 (1913) 188-189. 
" Cushny Pharm. & Therapeutics ed. 7 (1918) 294. 
" Bastedo Mat. Med. Pharm. & Therapeutics (1914) 249. 
"Hatcher & Wilbert The Pharm. & the Physician ed. 2 (1908) ?,2>2. 



EUCOFFEA HOOK. F. 43 

as a drug, especially because it is the only stimulant known which 
is not succeeded by a period of depression. Habitual coffee-drinkers 
develop a certain degree of immunity from the physiological effects 
of caffeine. Therefore, its medicinal dosage is uncertain because 
of marked variations in individual susceptibility. 

Prelinnaean References: — Buna Clusius Exoticorum PL Hist. (1605) 
236 cum ic. semen; Euonymo similis .^gyptiaca, fructu baccis lauri- 
simili C. Bauhin Pinax (1623) 428 ed. 2 (1681) 428; Arbor Bon 
cum fructu sue Buna Parkinson Theatr. Bot. (1640) 1622 cum ic. ; 
Coffee Frutex ex cujus Fructu fit Potus Ray Hist. PL 2 (1693) 1691 ; 
Du Caffe Pomet Hist. Gen. Drogues (1694) 204 avec Tabl. ; Bon 
vel Ban Pluk. Almagest. Bot. (1696) 69, t. 272, f. i ; Jasminum 
arabicum, lauri folio, cujus semen apud nos coffe dicitur B. Jussieu 
in Act. Acad. Par. (1713) 388, t. 7; Jasminum; Arabicum; Castaneae 
folio; flore albo, odoratissimo; cujus fructus Coffy, in Officinis dicuntur 
Nobis Boerhaave Ind. Alter PL Ludg-Bat. 2 (1720) 217; Bon Alpino 
De PL i^gypt. ed. i (1592) 36, t. 36; De Bon Vesling De PL i^gypt 
(1638) 21; Bon vel Ban Arbor (Bunchus Arabum) Chabraeo Stirp. 
Ic. et Sciagr. (1666) 32 cum ic; Coffea L. Hort. Cliff. (1737) 59; 
Coffea Royen FL Leyd. Prodr. (1740) 239; Coffea L. Hort. Ups. 
(1748) 41; Mat. Med. ed. i (1749) 24. 

Bibliography: — L. Sp. PL ed. i (1753) 172; Amoen. Acad. 4 (1759) 
7. — Ellis Monogr. Coffee (1774). — Lam. Encycl. Bot. i (1783) 550; 
TabL (1792) t. 160 f. I. — Gaertn. Frucht. Sem. (1788) t. 25. — Plenck Ic. 
PL Med. (1789) t. 130. — Lour. FL Cochinch. i (1790) 144. — ^Woodville 
SuppL Med. Bot. 4 (1794) 48, t. 230; Med. Bot. ed. 2, i (1810) 182 
t. 70. — Coyte Index PL i (1807) lOO. — Tuss. FL AntilL i (1808) 121- 
140 t. 18; Bot. Mag. 32 (1810) 1303 t. 1303. — Chaumeton FL Med. 
2 (1815) loi t. 85; Diet. ScL Nat. Planches 3 (1816-29) t. 5. — Roques 
Phytographie Med. 2 (1821) 49 t. 96. — Moon Cat. PL Ceylon (1824) 
15.— Roxb. FL Ind. ed. i (WalL) 2 (1824) 193; ed. 2, i (1832) 539- 
— Spreng. Syst. Veg. i (1825) 755. — Blume Bijdr. FL Nederl. (1826) 
965. — Ness von Esenbeck PL Med. 2 (1828) t. 257. — Sert. Bot. 2 
(1829) t. 6.— DC. Prodr. 4 (1830) 499.— Steph. & Churchill Med. 
Bot. 4 (1831) 182 t. 182.— WalL Cat. (1832) 6243.— Kosteleszky Med. 
FL 2 (1833) 556-558.— G. Don Gen. Hist. Dichlam. PL 3 (1834) 579 
f. 107.— Wight & Arn. Prodr. i (1834) 435-— Blanco FL Filip. (1837) 
156.— Lindley FL Med. (1838) 440.— A. Richard Tent. FL Abyss, i 
(1838-43) 349.— Morch. Cat. PL Hort. Bot. Hasn. (1839) 30.— Bur- 
nett PL Util. I (1840) t. 13. — Heynh. Nomen. Bot. Hort. (1840) 210. 
— Wight Ic. PL Ind. Or. i (1840) t. 53- — Spach Hist. Nat. Veget. 
Planch. (1846) t. 63.— Mason FL Burmanica (1856) 598.— Miq. FL 
Ind. Bot. 2 (1856-59) 304; Sumatra (1862) 57, 76; Ann. Mus. 
Bot. Lugd. Bat. 4 (1868-69) 258.— Griseb. FL Brit. W. Ind. (1864) 
338. — Marchand Recherches Organogr. et Organogen. Coffea arabica L. 
(1864).— G. BernoulH in Bot. Zeit. (1869) 19.— Bedd. FL Sylv. (1873) 
t. 17, f. I. — Gard. Chron. ser. 2, 6 (July 1876) 105 t. 27 f. a (berry); 
d (leaf). — Hiern in Trans. Linn. Soc. ser. 2, i (1876) 170-1. — Baker 



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PLATE 13: COFFEA ARABIC A L. 



44 



EUCOFFEA HOOK. F. 45 

Fl. Maurit. & Seych. (1877) 152.— Hiern in Oliver Fl. Trop. Afr. 3 
(1877) 180.— Kurz For. Fl. Brit. Burma 2 (1877) 27.— U. S. Dept. 
Agric. Rep. (1878) 194 t. 2 (young plant). — Schomb. Cat. PL Gov. 
Bot. Card. Adelaide So. Austr. (1878) 93.— Baill. Hist. PL 7 (1880) 
275 f. 251, 252, 253, 276, f. 254, 405. — Bentl. & Trim. Med. PL 2 
(1880) 144 t. 144.— Mart. FL Bras. 6 pt. 5 (1881-88) 76 t. 11.— 
Heraud Nouveau Diet. PL Med. (1884) 143, 144 f. 44; 145 f. 45- 
— Burck in Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 4 (1884) 50 t. 6 f. 50; Manus. 
transL by Herzsohn in Lc. 8 (1890) 148.— Hillebr. FL Hawaii (1888) 
176. — K. Schum. in Engl. & Prantl Nat. Pflanzenfam. 4, Abt. 4, (1891) 
103 f. 36; Nachtr. (1897) 315.— Trim. Handb. FL CeyL, 2 (1894) 
353. — Th. Dur. & Schinz Etud. FL Congo (1896) 163. — Hiern Welw. 
Cat. Afr. PL pt. 2 (1898) 488.— Froehner in Notizbl. Bot. Mus. 7 
(1897) 233; in EngL Bot. Jahrb. 25 (1898) 261.— Heck. PL Med. & 
Tox. (1897) 33- — Raoul Cult. Cafeier in Man. Cult. Trop. de Raoul 
& Sagot pt. I, 2 (1897) 229, 230. — Lecomte Le Cafe (1899) 18. — ■ 
Preuss Exped. Cent. & Siidamer. (1900) 352. — Jumelle Les Cult. Col. 
PL Aliment, i (1901) 350, 351 f. 92. — Collett FL Simlensis (1902) 
226. — Cornaillac El Cafe, la Vainilla, el Cacao, etc. (1903) 21-27; 
t. 22 f. i; t. 24 f. 2, 3; t. 25 f. 4; t. 26 f. 5, 6— -Cook. Fl. Bombay i 
(1903) 626. — Wettst. Veg. Siidbras. (1904) t. 40 (young plantation). 
— Safford in Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. 9 (1905) 244 t. 30 (Useful 
PL Guam). — DeWild. Mission Laurent 3 (1906) 344 t. 67, 68, 69, 70. 
— Fauchere Cult. Prat. Cafeier (1908) 3 t. i, 3. — Corr. Fl. Braz. 
(1909) 5. — T. Dur. & H. Dur. Fl. Congol. (1909) 275. — Laliere Le 
Cafe (1909) 45 t. 5. — DeWild. Compagnie Kasai (1910) i. — Wettst. 
Handb. Syst. Bot. (1911) 759. — L. H. Bail. Stand. Cycl. Hort. 2 
(1914) 823. — Maza & Roig Fl. Cub. ed. 2 (1916) 32, 137. — Culbreth 
Man. Mat. Med. & Pharm. ed. 6 (1917) 547, 548 f. 371.— EngL & Gilg 
Syll. Pflanzenfam. ed. 8 (1919) 339- — Chev. Explor. Bot. Afr. Occid. 
Frang. i (1920) 335. — Urban Symbolae Antillanae seu Fundamenta 
Fl. Ind. Occid. 8 pt. 2 (1921) 676. — Gamble Man. Ind. Timbers (v^^. 
descript. wood struct.) ed. 2 (1922) 422. 

Economic and Cultural References: — Bradley Virtue and Use of 
Coffee w. regard to Plague and other infectious Distempers (1721). — 
Laborie Coffee Planter St. Dom. (1798). — Guillemin, Perrottet & 
Richard Fl. Senegamb. Tent. (1830-33) 261. — Kosteleszky Med. Pharm. 
FL I (1831) 294; 2 (1833) 556; 4 (1835) 1350.— DC. Orig. Cult. 
PL Fr. ed. (1833) 333.— Porter in The Trop. Agric. (1833) 51-84, t. 
56.— Duchesne PL Util. et PL Venen. (1836) 148.— Roques PL Us. 
2 (1837) 271. — Lindley Med. & CEcon. Bot. (1849) 239. — Archer 
Pop. Econ. Bot. (1853) 129-133. — Rhind Hist. Veget. King. (1855) 
394-396. — Marchand Recherch. Organogr. & Organogen. sur le Coffea 
arabica L. (1864). — Simonds Coffee & Chicory; Their Cult. Chem. 
Comp. Prepar. for Market & Consumpt. (1864). — Sabonadiere Coffee 
PL Ceylon (1870). — Kurz For. FL Brit. Burma 2 (1877) 5. — Simonds 
"coffee" in Trop. Agric. (1877) 27. — Pickering Chron. Hist. PL (1879) 
811, 831.— Christy New Comm. PL & Drugs No. 7 (1884) 79.— Ficalho 
PL Uteis (1884) 199.— Heraud Nouveau Diet. PL Med. (1884) 144, 
145, 148. — Boehnke-Reich Der Kaffee in sein. Bezieh. zum Leben 



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PLATE 14: COFFEA ARABIC A L. 
46 



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PLATE 15: COFFEA ARABIC A L. 



47 



48 COFFEE 

(1885) 162.— Arnold Coffee: Its Cult. & Profit (1886).— Lanessan 
PL Util. Col. Frang. (1886) 42, 206, 883.— Corre & Lejanne Mat. Med. 
(1887) 59-— Mueller Select. Extra-Trop. PL ed. 7 (1888) 107.— Kew 
BulL (1888) 129; (1893) 123, 128, 321; (1894) 163.— Deflers Voy. 
Yemen (1889) 143. — Foreman Philipp. Is. (1889) 337- — Watt Diet. 
Econ. Prod. Ind. 2 (1889) 460-491. — Tschirch Ind. Heil- u. Nutzpflanz. 
u. Cult. (1892) 58-73, t. 33, 35. — Saenz Memoria Sobre el Cult, del 
Cafeto (1892).— Raoul Cult. Cafeier (1894) -—Walsh Coffee Classif. 
Hist. & Descript. (1894). — Editor in Bull. Bot. Dept. Jamaica "Notes 
on Coffee" from Laborie's Coffee Planter pt. 12, 2 (1895) 273. — Del- 
gardo Contrib. al Estudio del Cafe en Venezuela (1895) 1-93. — Heuze 
PL Industr. 4 (1895) 172. — Hart in Ann. Rep. Roy. Bot. Gard. Trini- 
dad (1896) 13. — Ferguson Coffee PL Man. (1898) 1-312. — Lecomte 
Le Cafe (1899) 41-332. — Zimmermann "Die Nematodenkrankheit der 
Kaffeeplanz. auf Java" in Bull. Inst. Bot. Buitenz. 4 (1900) 11; 
Ueber den Krebs von Cojfea arahica L. verusacht durch Rostrella 
Cojfece gen. & sp. n. I.e. — Higgens Prelim. List Vernac. Names Trees, 
Shrubs, & Woody Climbers Madras Presidency (1901) 47. — Nicolai 
Der Kaffee u. sein. Ersatzmitt. (1901) 68. — Travera (Transl. by 
Thomas) Med. PL Philipp. (1901) 144. — Dubard Les Cafeiers in 
Agric. Prat, des Pays Chauds pt. i, 5 (1905) 92; in Bull. Mus. Nat. 
Hist. Nat. (1907) 279. — Freeman & Chandler World's Comm. Prod. 
(1907) 174. — Hare, Caspari, Rusby Natl. Stand. Dispens. ed. 2 (1908) 
340. — Fauchere Cult. Prat. Cafeier (1908). — Hueppe Unters. iiber 
Zichorie (1908) 36. — Pittier PL Us. Costa Rica (1908) 74, 149, t. 11. — 
Watt Comm. Prod. Ind. (1908) 363. — Westermann Die Nutzpflanz. 
Unser. Kolon. (1909) 27-28, t. 8. — Roux Cult. & Comm. Cafes en 
Abyss, in Agric. Prat. Pays Chauds pt. 2, 10 (1910) 149. — Editor Prod. 
Mocha Coffee in Agric. News Barbados 10 (1911) 244. — Hartwich 
Die Menschlich. Genuszm. (1911) 274-278. — Ward Encycl. Foods & 
Bever. (1911) 160, 169. — Van Wijk Diet. PL Names i (1911) 346. — 
Wehmer Pflanzenstoffe (1911) 730. — Editor "A Costa Rican Coffee 
Estate" in W. I. Comm. Cire. 29 (1914) 486. — Lewkowitsch Chem. 
Teehnol. & Anal. Oils, Fats, & Waxes ed. 5, 2 (1914) 371. — Perrot 
Les Grand. Prod. Veget. Col. frang. (1915) 421, 423 t. 32; Travaux 
du Lab. Mat. Med. Ecole Super, de Pharm. de Paris pt. 5, 10 (1913- 
1916) No. 3, pg. 9. — Dingle New Atlas & Comm. Gaz. China ed. 2 
(1917) XIV. — Griebel in Zeitschr. Nahrungs-u. Genuszm. 35 (1918) 
272. — Kraemer Bot. Abstracts No. 5, i (1919) 219. 

Key to the Economic Varieties of C. arabica L. 

Leaves succulent; larger than the other varieties of C. arabica L. ; 
mature berry large (nearly 2.5 cm. long), red, soft, cherry-like, with 

silky, glabrous surface, very small proportion of pulp 

maragogipe Hort. ex Kew Bull. 

Leaves spathulate, attenuated, three times as long as wide (1.4 cm. 
to 3.0 cm. wide by 5.5 cm. to 12 cm. long), very glossy, veins very dis- 
tinct ; fruit red angustifoUa Miq. 




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PLATE 16: COFFEA ARABIC A L. 



49 



50 COFFEE 

Leaves long-elliptical, veins 7-8, greenish-yellow color; fruit red.... 

straminea Miq. 

Leaves abundant, 5 cm. to 7 cm. wide by 13 cm. to 20 cm. long, veins 
9-11, rarely 13; bracteoles highly developed, nearly linear, extending 
beyond calyx ; fruit red stuhlmannii Warbg. 

Leaves small, narrowed toward the tip, three times as long as wide 
(1.5 cm. to 3.0 cm. wide by 5.0 cm. to 10 cm. long), veins 5-6 of the 

first rank, not very distinct; branches thin; fruit red 

intermedia Froehner 

Leaves elliptical, 3.0 cm. wide by 6.0 cm. long; branches articulate, 

gray ; bark transversely fissured ; fruit red 

rhachiformis (Baill.) Froehner 

Leaves glabrous, pointed, narrow, cuneiform; petiole i cm. long; 
fruit black Humblotiana (Baill.) Froehner 

Leaves 4.5 cm. to 6.0 cm. wide by 12.5 cm. to 18 cm. long; fruit 
yellow, rare amarella Hort. ex Froehner 

Leaves elliptical or oval-oblong, obtusely-acuminate, cuneiform, nar- 
rowed, thinly coriaceous, not glandular in axils of veins, 2.0 cm. to 
3.5 cm. wide by 7 cm. to 15 cm. long, veins 6-7 of the first rank; fruit 
white, size of a pea leucocarpa Hiern 

Coffea arabica L. var. maragogipe Hort. ex Kew Bull. (1884) 164. 

A large plant, resembling C. lib erica Bull in habit. Branches 
whippy, with very long internodes. Leaves twice the size of the 
other varieties of C. arabica L., papery in texture, with undulating 
margin. Flowers and fruit characteristic of C. arabica L. excepting 
the size of the fruit which is nearly 2.5 cm. long. The so-called 
"parchment skin" or chartaceous integument is thin, not hard or 
horny. Extraordinarily vigorous plant, attaining a height of 2.4 to 
3.0 M. at the age of 3-4 years, and full of fruit or so-called cherries, 
at that time. The tree bears earlier than other coffees. The mature 
fruit is red, soft, silky, smooth surface, and it has a proportionally 
small amount of pulp. The seeds, like the fruit as a whole, are 
larger than other varieties of C. arabica L. This results in a greater 
yield by weight per acre. Cleaned beans, prior to desiccation, form 
thirty per cent by weight of the fruit. 

Diagnostic Characters of the Variety : — Succulent and large leaves. 
The large size of the fruit. 

Common Names: — Maragogipe Coffee; Brazilian Coffee; Blue 
Mountain Coffee. 

Geographical Distribution: — Brazil. Introduced Into Bolivia; 
India; Ceylon; Java; Queensland; Jamaica. 




PLATE 17: COFFEA ARABIC A L. 



51 



52 COFFEE 

History: — This variety of C. arabica L. was discovered in 1870 by 
Crisogono Jose Fernandez near Maragogipe in the province of 
Bahia, Brazil. On account of the agreeable flavor of its seeds, 
vigorous growth, early maturity, and large yield, it has become a 
popular variety cultivated by planters. The heavy nature of the 
endocarp and the consistency of the pulp offer no hindrance for the 
machines employed in the working process. It was introduced into 
England from Brazil by Mr. Thomas Christy, F.L.S., in 1883, and 
grown successfully in the Palm House of the Royal Botanic Gardens 
at Kew. It was soon introduced from Brazil into the English 
colonies. Maragogipe coflfee has been grown successfully in Ceylon, 
Java, Jamaica, and Trinidad. In Ceylon and Java, however, it was 
attacked by the coffee-leaf fungus known as Hemileia vastatrix, 
which was first noted in 1869; and, by 1881, the Ceylon coffee- 
industry was ruined and coffee-estates were abandoned. Maragogipe 
coffee was first cultivated at the Botanic Gardens, Trinidad, in 1887. 
In Jamaica, seeds were received in 1883, and the plants were dis- 
tributed in the Blue Mountain district in 1884-5. ^^ Queensland, 
in 1893, nearly 6,000 coffee-plants — many of them being Marago- 
gipe from Brazil — were set out along the coast at Mackay, Bunda- 
berg, Maryborough, Gympie, Maroochie, Mooloolah, Cleveland, 
etc. A hybrid has been successful which was produced by fertilizing 
true C. arabica L. with the pollen of the Maragogipe variety. The 
production of Maragogipe coffee, however, is a comparatively small 
figure as regards true C. arabica L. production. 

Use: — It is used largely by commercial concerns as a filler. 

Bibliography: — Editorial in Trop, Agric. 4 (1884) 494- — Kew Bull. 
(1894) 164.— Raoul Cult. Cafeier in Man. Cult. Trop. de Raoul & 
Sagot pt. I, 2 (1897) 89. — Froehner in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 25 (1898) 
263. — Lecomte Le Cafe (1899) 24. — Jumelle Les Cult. Col. PL Ali- 
ment. I (1901) 352. — Chev. Explor. Bot. Afr. Occid. Frang. i (1920) 
335. 

Economic and Cultural References: — Christy New Comm. PI. and 
Drugs No. 7 (1884) 79. — Trans. Queensl. Acclim. Soc. June (1893) 
56. — Fauchere Cult. Prat. Cafeier (1908) 4 t. 4, 6. — Hartwich Die 
Menschlich. Genuszm. (1911) 277. See also citations under C. 
arabica L. 





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-- 


_^,... . 


/i 




-*0. ^fea araljlca L. 




'. ._/ ''-.. 



PLATE 18: COFFEA JJRABICA L. 
Leaves showing effects of leaf-fungus. 



53 



54 COFFEE 

Coffea arabica L. var. angustifolia Miq. 

A tree bearing spathulate and pointed leaves, three times as long 
as wide, 1.4 cm. to 3.0 cm. wide by 5.5 cm. to 12 cm. long, dis- 
tinguished by very highly polished or glossy leaves, veins distinct. 

Synonymy: — Coffea angustifolia Roxb. Fl. Ind. ed. i (Wall.) 2 
(1824) 195; ed. 2 (1832) 541. — DC. Prodr. 4 (1830) 499. — G. 
Don Gen. Hist. Dichlam. PL 3 (1834) 582.— Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 
2 (1856-59) 307. — Burck in Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 4 (1884) 54. 

Geographical Distribution: — Celebes (Prov. Menado). 

History: — This variety has appeared in the Celebes where it is 
cultivated to some extent in the Province of Menado. 

Bibliography: — Froehner in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 25 (1898) 263. — Le- 
comte Le Cafe (1899) 25. 

Economic and Cultural Reference: — Raoul Cult. Cafeier in Man. 
Cult. Trop. de Raoul and Sagot pt. i, 2 (1897) 90. — Hartwich Die 
Menschlich. Genuszm. (1911) 278. 

Coffea arabica L. var. straminea Miq. 

A tree bearing long-elliptical leaves with 7 to 8 veins of the first 
rank ; leaf lamina greenish-yellow color. 

Synonymy: — Coffea sundana Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 2 (1856-1859) 
306. 

Geographical Distribution: — Sumatra (De Vriese) ; Celebes 
(Prov. Menado) ; Java (Preanger District). 

History: — This variety occurs chiefly in Sumatra and Java at an 
altitude of 550 to iioo M. It is cultivated to some extent. 

Bibliography: — Froehner in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 25 (1898) 263. — Le- 
comte Le Cafe (1899) 25. 

Economic and Cultural Reference: — Hartwich Die Menschlich. 
Genuszm. (1911) 278. 

Coffea arabica L. var. Stuhlmannii Warbg. 

A tree with very abundant foliage. Leaves occur in the normal 
position found in C. arabica L. although crowded. Leaves 5 cm. 
to 7 cm. wide by 13 cm. to 20 cm. long, veins 9 to 11 rarely 13; 
bracteoles well developed, nearly linear, extend beyond the calyx. 
Fruit normal size, red. 

Common Name: — Bukoba Coffee. 

Geographical Distribution: — Bukoba, Africa (Lake Region at 
about 1200 M). 



h 



\. 



Varieties 



*^>* 





^ 




a 




■ — " 






t 




_, 


! 


^— rz 




Qi~ 


■■■■■i ■" 







PLATE 19: COFFEA ARABIC A L. 
VAR. ANGUSTIFOLIA MIQ. 

55 



56 COFFEE 

History: — This variety was collected by Stuhlmann in a half 
cultivated and half wild state among banana plants while he was 
on the Emin Pascha Expedition. It is found in great quantities in 
the inner African Lake Region, especially at Bukoba, 

Bibliography: — Froehner in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 25 (1898) 263. — Le- 
comte Le Cafe (1899) 25. 

Economic and Cultural Reference: — Hartwich Die Menschlich. 
Genuszm. (1911) 277. 

Coffea arabica L. var. intermedia Froehner in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 
25 (1898) 264. 

A small tree with thin, slender branches. Leaves deviate from the 
normal form of the species. Leaves 1.5 cm. to 3.0 cm. wide by 5.0 
cm. to 1 0.0 cm. long, similar to the leaves of C. arabica L. var. 
angustifolia Miq., three times as long as wide; leaf apex, on account 
of narrow form, appears somewhat longer ; leaf narrows down toward 
the base ; veins 5 to 6 of the first rank, not very distinct. Flowers 
usually 2 to 4 together. 

Geographical Distribution : — Lake Region, Ligaijo, Africa. 

History: — This variety was collected by Fischer, number 326, at 

Ligaijo, Africa, where it grows wild. It is also cultivated to a slight 

extent by the natives. This specimen is identical with the flowerless 

plant which A. Whyte found at Chiradzulu and the specimen which 

Scott Elliot collected at Ruwenzori during the expedition of 1893- 

1894- 

Bibliography: — Froehner in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 25 (1898) 264. — Le- 
comte Le Cafe (1899) 25. 

Coffea arabica L. rhachiformis (Baill.) Froehner in Engl. Bot. 
Jahrb. 25 (1898) 264. 

A shrub which attains 4 to 5 M. in height; branches smooth, 
gray, articulated, with transversely fissured bark. Leaves elliptical, 
large, 3 cm. wide by 6 cm. long. Flowers small, i cm. long, firmly 
attached. Fruit red, firmly attached, usually solitary; seeds 1.66 cm. 
long. 

Synonymy: — Coffea rhachifonnis Baill. in Bull. Soc. Linn. Par. 
I' (1885) 514. — Froehner in Notizbl. d. Kgl. Bot. Mus. 7 (1897) 
234. — Raoul Cult. Cafeier in Man. Cult. Trop. de Raoul and Sagot 
pt. I, 2 (1897) 239. 




{,.//... .,,./.... L 









PLATE 20: COFFEA ARABIC! L. VAR. ANGUSTIFOLIA MIQ. 



57 



58 COFFEE 

Geographical Distribution : — Grand Comoro Island. 

History: — This variety was discovered in the Grand Comoro 
Island, where it is now cultivated to a small extent and furnishes 
a very excellent coffee. 

BibHography: — Froehner in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 25 (1898) 264. — Le- 
comte Le Cafe (1899) 26. 

Economic and Cultural Reference: — Hartwich Die Menschlich. 
Genuszm. (1911) 277. 

Coffea arabica L. var. Humblotiana (Baill.) Froehner in Engl. 
Bot. Jahrb. 25 (1898) 264. 

A very tall tree, up to 25 M., with gray, shriveled bark. Leaves 
glabrous, pointed, cuneiform at the base, narrowed; petiole i cm. 
long. Flowers pedunculate, 2.5 cm. long and wide; peduncle i 
cm. long, corolla-tube broadly lanceolate ; small glandular calyx-mar- 
gin. Fruit black, obovate, 1.5 cm. long, smooth, with longitudinal 
furrows; seeds over i cm. long. 

Synonymy: — Coffea Humblotiana Baill. in Bull. Soc. Linn. Par. 
I (1895) 514- — (Baill.) Froehner in Notizbl. d. Kgl. Bot. Mus. 7 
(1897) 234. — Raoul Cult. Cafeier in Man. Cult. Trop. de Raoul 
and Sagot pt. i, 2 (1897) 238. — ^Wehmer Pflanzenstoffe (1911) 

734. 

Geographical Distribution: — Grand Comoro Island. 

History: — ^This variety was discovered in the Grand Comoro 
Island where it is now cultivated to a slight extent by the natives. 
This variety is devoid of caffeine (0.00%) according to the analysis 
by M. le professeur Bertrand. 

Bibliography: — Froehner In Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 25 (1898) 264. — 
Lecomte Le Cafe (1899) 25. 

Economic and Cultural References: — Bertrand in Compt. Rend. 141 
(1905) 209; 132 (1901) 161. — Hartwich Die Menschlich. Genuszm. 
(191 1 ) 277, 300, 825. — ^Wehmer Pflanzenstoffe (191 1) 734. 

Coffea arabica L. var. amarella Hort. ex Froehner in Engl. Bot. 
Jahrb. 25 (1898) 263. 

A small tree bearing leaves 4.5 cm. to 6.0 cm, wide by 12.5 cm. 
to 18.0 cm. long. Fruit yellow, with a remarkably high caffeine-con- 
tent; rare. 

Common Names: — Botucatu Coffee; Golden Drop Coffee; Ama- 
rillo Coffee. 



EUCOFFEA HOOK. F. 59 

Geographical Distribution: — Botucatu, Brazil. 

History: — This variety was discovered in 1871 in Botucatu Dis- 
trict in the Province of Sao Paulo, Brazil. It is cultivated in this 
region to a very slight degree. It has been introduced into India 
by the English. 

Bibliography: — Froehner in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 25 (1898) 263. — 
Lecomte Le Cafe (1899) 24. — Jumelle Les Cult. Col. PI. Aliment, i 
(1901) 352. 

Economic and Cultural References: — Pobequin Essai sur la Fl. 
Guin. Frang. (1906) 352. — Fauchere Cult. Prat. Cafeier (1908) 4. — 
Hartwich Die Menschlich. Genuszm. (1911) 277. 

Coffea arabica L. var. leucocarpa Hiern in Trans. Linn. Soc. 
Lond. sen 2, i (1876) 171. 

A glabrous shrub with terete branches, somewhat compressed 
toward the extremities. Leaves short, 2 cm. to 3.5 cm. wide by 7 
cm. to 15 cm. long, elliptical or oval-oblong, obtusely acuminate, 
cuneiform, narrowed, thinly coriaceous; 6 to 7 first-rank veins, in- 
conspicuous, not glandular in axils; stipules pointed, 0.3 1 cm. long, 
ovate, sheathing at the base ; petiole not longer or only slightly longer 
than the stipules, i.e., petiole 0.31 cm. to 0.42 cm. long. Flowers 
few, aggregated in axillary clusters; bracts ovate, 0.2 cm. to 0.31 cm. 
long, i.e., shorter than the small fruiting pedicel. Fruit single or in 
pairs, white, erect, size of a pea ; seeds 0.62 cm. long. 

Geographical Distribution: — Sierra Leone. 

History: — This white-fruited variety of Cojfea arabica L. was 
first described from a specimen in the collection of Th. Vogel dated 
June, 1 84 1. This variety is considered by some botanists to be 
individualistic enough to warrant its elevation to specific rank. It is 
cultivated to a slight degree in Upper Guinea. 

Bibliography: — Hiern in Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. ser. 2, i (1876) 
171; in Oliver Fl. Trop. Afr. 3 (1877) 181.— K. Schum. in Engl. & 
Prantl Nat. Pflanzenfam. 4, Abt. 4, (1891) 104. — Raoul Cult. Cafeier 
in Man. Cult. Trop. de Raoul & Sagot pt. i, 2 (1897) 231. — Froehner 
in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 25 (1898) 264. — Lecomte Le Cafe (1899) 25. — 
Jumelle Les Cult. Col. PL Aliment, i (1901) 352. 

Economic and Cultural Reference: — Hartwich Die Menschlich. 
Genuszm. (1911) 277. 

Coffea congensis Froehner in Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin No. 7, 
I (1897) 233, 235. 



6o COFFEE 

A slender, thinly-branched tree or tall shrub. Leaves thickly 
coriaceous, 4 cm. to 6 cm. wide by 12 cm. to 16 cm. long, apex 
prolonged for about i cm.; veins 6 to 7 (5 to 9 in its various varie- 
ties) of the first order, clearly distinguishable; petiole over i cm. 
long. Flowers yellowish, aggregated in 4 to 8 membered axillary 
fascicles, each flower subtended by i or 2 bracts which extend be- 
yond the calyx; corolla fissured for two-thirds of its length; tube 
0.4 cm. long; lobe ovate-lanceolate, 1.5 cm. long; calyx glabrous, 
slightly dentate. Anthers firmly attached, 0.5 cm. long, completely 
exserted. Fruit similar to C. arabica L. but somewhat smaller, 1.6 
cm. long, 0.7 cm. in diameter, ovoid with a faint longitudinal suture; 
pericarp thin ; seeds oblong-elliptical, 0.6 cm. long. Stone cells very 
numerous in the testa. 

Diagnostic Characters of the Species: — Flowers and fruits in 
January; flowers yellowish, not very fragrant; calyx only slightly 
dentate; fruit smaller than C. arabica L. 

Geographical Distribution : — Congo : Lake Tchad. 

History: — The species was collected in the Congo region of Africa. 
It was first described in 1897. Ii^ the regions bordering on the 
equator, it can be cultivated up to 800 M. It is apparently insus- 
ceptible to Hejjiileia vastatrix according to its behavior in this re- 
gard when it was investigated in Madagascar. The caffeine con- 
tent of the seeds is 1.19%. It is not very productive, and its culti- 
vation has not been largely extended. It embodies two economic 
varieties; namely, C. congensis Froehner var. Chalotii Pierre mss. 
ex DeWild. ; and C. congensis Froehner var. subsessilis DeWild. 
The other varieties are not known to be of economic importance. 
It is questionable whether they are valid varieties, as they possess an 
exceedingly close inter-relationship and approximation to some forms 
of C. arabica L. 

Use: — It is used as a local substitute to some extent for the seeds 
of C. arabica L. in the tropical regions of Africa and Madagascar. 

Bibliography: — Froehner in Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin i (1897) 233, 
235; in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 25 (1898) 254, 265. — K. Schum. in Engl. & 
Prantl Nat. Pflanzenfam. 4, Abt. 4, Nachtr. (1897) 3i5» — ^Th. Durand 
& DeWild. Mat. Fl. Congo 2 (1898) 75.— Lecomte Le Cafe (1899) 
27. — DeWild. Les Cafeiers (1901) 15. — Cornaillac El Cafe, la Vai- 
nilla, el Cacao, etc. (1903) 28. — Chev. in Bot. Centralbl. 93 (1903) 70; 















i^^ 






^--- ^" '_.'^'-.!;_V' '•' '" **■- '■* *" '^ * 


Wli 



PLATE 21: COFFEA C07VG£iV^/5 FROEHNER 

From Fauchere Cult. Prat. Cafeier (1908) t. 61. 
6i 



62 COFFEE 

in Compt. Rend. d. Seances De I'Acad. d. Sci. Par. 140 (1905) 517-520. 
— DeWild. Mission E. Laurent 3 (1906) 335 t. 71, 73. — DeWild. PI. 
Trop. Grand. Cult, i (1908) 90 t. 19; Compagnie Kasai (1910) i. 
Economic and Cultural References: — Fauchere Cult. Prat. Cafeier 
(1908) 7 to 8. — Harwich Die Menschlich. Genuszm. (1911) 274. — 
Perrot Travaux Lab. Mat. Med. Ecole Super, de Pharm. de Paris pt. 5, 
10 (1913-1916) no. 3, pg. 11; Les Grand. Prod. Veget. Col. Frang. 
(1915) 421, 430 t. 34 f- 61. 

Coffea congensis Froehner var. subsessilis DeWild. Miss. Laurent 
3 (1906) 337, t. 73. 

A tree bearing elliptical leaves. Leaves cuneiform at the base, 
rather sharply obtuse at apex, acumen short ; petiole 8 mm. to 9 mm. 
long, lamina 5 cm. to 12 cm. long by 1.5 cm. to 4.5 cm. wide; lateral 
veins 7 to 8, anastomosing in arches before reaching the margin ; 
glands axillary, small or not appearing on upper surface; opening by 
an irregular slit, often oval, at angle of veins; stipules w^idely tri- 
angular, slightly pointed; bracts foliaceous, linear, 4 mm. long. 
Flowers arranged in 2 to 3 axillary cymes of i to 2 flowers each, 
usually solitary; cyme peduncle short, more or less flattened, lightly 
attached to fruit and bearing i to 2 superposed calycules; flowers 7 
to 8-merous; lobes 12 mm. to 15 mm. long, tube about 10 mm. long. 
Fruit 14 mm. long by 10 mm. in diameter, and bearing a prominent 
I mm. disk at the summit ; disk very shortly contracted, usually 
not exceeding the calyculus. When two fruits are found subtended 
by the same calyculus, one has a much longer pedicel than the other. 

Diagnostic Characters of the Variety: — Prominent anastomosis 
of the leaf-veins. Pedicel scarcely exceeding the calyculus. Bracts 
linear, foliaceous, divergent, persistent below the fruit, and giving 
the fruiting glomerule a compact appearance. 

Geographical Distribution: — Stanley-Falls; Batekalela; Island of 
Lualaba. 

History: — This variety was collected at Stanley-Falls and on 
the island of Lualaba in 1896, and at Batekalela in 1904. Laurent 
mentions this variety as indigenous in the above localities; but it was 
not described authentically until 1906. 

Use: — As a local substitute for C. arahica L. 
1 

Bibliography: — DeWild. Miss. Laurent 3 (1906) 337, t. 73. — 
T. Dur. and H. Dur. Syll. Fl. Congol. (1909) 276. 






Mission Em Laurent 



^ • ^^ 




X4u»« i-*^n\.U nit. M.ii IM. 



EUW- ff.rot, P.rw 



COFFRA CONGENSiS Froehn. 
vaf, subaoatiilis Dc Wild . 



PLATE 22: COFFEA CONGENSIS FROEHNER 

From DeWild. Miss. Laur. 3 (1906) 337, t. 73. 

1. Fruiting Branch. 2. Fruit. 3. Flower. 

63 



64 COFFEE 

Coffea congensis Froehner var. Chalotii Pierre Mss. ex DeWild. 
Les Cafeiers (1901) 17. 

A tree with elliptical leaves. Leaf-lamina opaque, 10 cm. to 19 
cm. long by 4.5 cm. to 1 1 cm. wide, apex acuminate, base cuneiform, 
paired lateral veins 8 to 9; petiole 12 mm. to 22 mm. long. Inflores- 
cence axillary, very often solitary, comprising 3 to 4 flowers sur- 
rounded by a calyculus; outer calyculus foliaceous, highly developed; 
inner calyculus of shorter bracts. Flowers 5-merous, corolla 18 to 
23 mm. long, tube as long as lobes; calyx of 5 distinct, triangular 
lobes; disk longer than calyx. 

Diagnostic Characters of the Variety : — It is larger than the species 
proper, C. congensis Froehner; height often 7 to 8 M. Flowers 
whiter, more fragrant. Fruit long, elliptical ; seeds grayish ; pedicel 
always exceeds calyculus in length. 

Geographical Distribution : — Gabon ; Congo. 

History: — This variety was first collected by A. Dewevre in 1896 
in the Congo; also by Chalot (no. 20 & 47) and by R. P. Klaine 
(no. 1 691) in 1899; and was described in manuscript by M. Pierre. 
Marc Laurent collected it at Wangata in August, 1903. It was 
also found by Em. Laurent and L. Pj^naert (no. 250). The first 
published description, however, was by DeWildermann in 1901. 
This variety resembles C arabica L. ; but curiously it has not been 
largely cultivated by the natives. 

Use : — Largely as a substitute for the seeds of C. arabica L. 

Bibliography: — DeWild. Les Cafeiers (1901) 17; and Miss. Laurent 
3 (1906) 335 t. 71, 72, f. 54; PL Trop. Grand. Cult, i (1908) 90. — 
T. Dur. and H. Dur. Syll. Fl. Congol. (1909) 276. 

Coffea mauritiana Lam. Encycl. i (1783) 550. 

A greatly branched, glabrous shrub with slender branches; at- 
tains a height of 25 M. Bark whitish in the young plant; gray and 
rugose in the mature plant. Leaves glossy ; upper side dark green, 
lower side sometimes lighter, dull or brownish green; oblong, sub- 
coriaceous, subobtuse, 5 to 7.5 cm. wide by 9 to 14 cm. long; apex 
short, obtuse; base cuneiform; petiole short, flattened; venation of 
lamina very slender and graceful on both sides; stipules minute, 0.3 
cm. to 0.4 cm. long, lanceolate, deltoid. Flowers i to 4 together, 
sessile, in the axils of the leaves, 5-merous; corolla white, 0.62 cm. 
long, tube short; calyx short, 0.2 cm. long, subtended by a pair of 



^//^^/()^ / V I Al lif-M 




PLATE 23 : COFFEA CONGENSIS FROEHNER 
From DeWild. Miss. Laur. 3 (1906) t. 71. 



1. Flowering Branch. 

2. Flowering and Fruiting Branch. 

3. Portion of Inflorescence. 

4. Partial Inflorescence. 

5. Partial Inflorescence. 

6. Bract. 

7. Flower: — Corolla removed. 



65 



8. Young Fructification. 

9. Stipule — inner aspect. 

10. Fruit. 

11. Fruit. 

12. Fruit: — seen from above. 

13. Disk. 

14. Seed in situ. 
(Longitudinal section.) . 



66 COFFEE 

small, deltoid, fimbriated bracteoles bearing 5 distinct, deltoid teeth; 
calyx-margin extending beyond the calyculus. Stigma and anthers 
exserted ; anthers 0.42 cm. long. Fruit drupaceous, oblong to obovate, 
narrowed toward the base, with small caljrx scar; seeds narrowed 
below, 4 layered endocarp, cells narrowed in the same direction ; 
stone cells of testa are long, slender, strongly knotted; cell-walls 
are remarkably and irregularly thickened; pores large, oblique. 

Diagnostic Characters of the Species: — Leaves differing in color 
above and below; char, in form (See Plate) ; venation slender, grace- 
ful. Small calyx scar. Fruit, seeds, and endocarp-cells narrowed 
basally. Remarkable and irregular thickenings of testa cell-walls. 
Pair small deltoid, fimbriated bracteoles subtending the calyx. 

Synonymy: — Coffea sylvestris Willd. in Roem. and Schult. Syst. 
Veg. (1819) 201, No. 28. Coffea arabica L. var. /? Willd. Sp. PL 

I (1797) 974. 

Common Names : — Cafe marron in Bourbon ; cafe batard ; caffeyer 
de Bourbon. 

Geographical Distribution : — Mauritius ; Bourbon ; Is. Madagascar. 
In the high mountainous and forested regions. 

History : — Coffea mauritiana Lam. was discovered in Bourbon in 
1 7 15. It is referred to as cafe marron. In French West Africa, 
the seeds of Cassia occidentalism a coffee substitute, are designated 
by the same term. C. mauritiana Lam. seeds give a bitter infusion. 
This species and C. arabica L. have been crossed by Frappier and 
Le Hery, and the resulting seed resembles the latter species. This 
cross appeared in Java in 1876 under the name C. mauritiana and 
has been treated by some authors as a variety of C. arabica L. C. 
mauritiana Lam. seeds contain a very low percentage of caffeine, 
only 0.07%. 

Use: — The seeds are used as an adulterant for the seeds of C. 
arabica L. When taken alone, the beverage is said to be slightly 
intoxicating. In view of its low caffeine-content, it is evident that 
this report is exaggerated. 

Bibliography: — Lam. Encycl. i (1783) 550; Tabl. 2 (1792) ed. 1823, 
t. 160 f. 2. — Willd. Sp. PL I (1797) 974. — Spreng. Syst. Veg. i (1825) 
755.— DC. Prodr. 4 (1830) 499.— G. Don Gen. Hist. Dichlam. PL 3 
(1834) 581.— Duchesne PL UtiL et Venen. (1836) 148.— Hiern in 
Trans. Linn. Soc. ser. 2, i (1876) 173. — Baker Fl. Maurit. Seych, 
(1877) 152. — Courdemoy FL de Tile de la Reunion (1895) 506. — 



Go 



ff 



e a. ^Aa.u.r 1 1 caw ?SL L. 




i^®aa 



i':rG:a""'"ii :\ ii""i"';i-T";[. y-ry-i-x r"^""£"*'"r>'"r>""^ 

j INCHES ij 2| M *l ^! *1 

Ij 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 f f M 1 1 M 1 1 1 1 ! ! ! I ! J ! 1 f 1 1 1 ! ! i 11 1 ! ! I ! Ml 1 1 1 1 h f i 1 1 M h i 11 1 n i If 1 1 1 ! I ! I M h I i h I i 1 1 M ! I H I 
PLATE 24: COFFEA MAURITIANA LAM. 



67 



68 COFFEE 

Froehner in Notizbl. K. Bot. Mus. 7 (1897) 234. — K. Schum. in Engl. 
& Prantl Nat. Pflanzenfam. 4, Abt. 4, Nachtr. (1897) 3i5- — Raoul 
Cult. Cafeier in Man. Cult. Trop. de Raoul & Sagot pt. i, 2 (1897) 
229, 232. — Froehner in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 25 (1898) 273. — Lecomte Le 
Cafe (1899) 39. — Valeton in Bull. Inst. Bot. Buitenz. 7 (1901) 20. — 
Cornaillac El Cafe, la Vainilla, el Cacao, etc. (1903) 35. 

Economic and Cultural References: — Heraud Nouveau Diet. PI. Med. 
(1884) 145.— Lanessan PL Util. Col. Frang. (1886) 42, 206.— Corre & 
Lejanne Mat. Med. (1887) 60. — Reprint from Maurit. Planter's Gaz. 
in Trop. Agric. 15 (1895) 79. — Sebire Les PL Util. Senegal (1899) 179. 
— Van Wijk Diet. PL Names i (1911) 346. — Hartwich Die Mensch- 
lich. Genuszm. (1911) 274, 300, 825. 

Coffea Zanquebariae Lour. Fl. Cochinch, i (1790) 145. 

A shrub or small tree, 1.8 M. high, glabrous, erect, closely branched. 
Branches cinereous, rather thick, short, subterete ; older ones with 
gray bark bearing transverse and longitudinal fissures; younger twigs 
brown, compressed. Leaves glabrous, oval or obovate, 3.5 cm. to 6 
cm. wide, 5 cm. to 1 1 cm. long, obtuse or shortly pointed (4 mm.) 
cuneiform at base, chartaceous; lateral veins 5 to 8 pairs of the first 
rank with little hairy tufts in the axils ; upper side dull ; glossy below ; 
petiole 0.2 cm. to 0.62 cm. long; stipules ovate apiculate, connate at 
the base, 0.2 cm. to 0.3 cm. long. Flowers white, axillary, i to 3 
in a cluster, hexamerous or heptamerous, shortly pedicellate. Caly- 
culus extending beyond the smooth calyx-margin; bracteoles deltoid 
or subtruncate, apiculate, all falling short of the minute calyx-limb. 
Fruit ovate or oblong, dark red; stem of fruit elongates after 
flowering and becomes as long as fruit which is 1.25 cm. to 1.5 
cm. long; dark red fruit turns black or brownish-black when dried; 
capitate disk ; longitudinally nerved. 

Diagnostic Characters of the Species: — Leaves chartaceous, trans- 
verse section shows considerably elongated but rarely branched 
sclerencyhma ; fruit-pedicel as long as the fruit; fruit longitudinally 
nerved; cells of pulp layers are radically elongated; seeds resemble 
C. arahica L. in size and form. 

Synonymy: — Amazona Africana Spreng. Syst. Veg. 2 (1825) 126; 
Hexepta axillaris Raf. Sylva Tellur. (1838) 164. 

Common Names: — Zanzibar Coffee. 

Geographical Distribution: — Zanzibar coast; Mozambique. 

History : — This species is indigenous in German East Africa along 
the Zanzibar coast. It was introduced into Mozambique by the 







c 



ff 



0>>eaL Zlaneiaeba-riae 



^ 



PLATE 25: COFFEA ZANGUEBARIAE LOUR. 
69 



70 COFFEE 

Portuguese. This species has been cultivated and, in 1880, 9300 kg. 
of excellent coffee-seeds were harvested in Nossibe. 
Use: — As a substitute for C. arabica L. 

Bibliography: — Lour. Fl. Cochinch. i (1790) 145. — Lam. Encyc. 
Suppl. 2 (1811) 15.— DC. Prodr. 4 (1830) 500.— G. Don Gen. Hist. 
Dichlam. PL 3 (1834) 582. — Hiern in Trans. Linn. Soc. ser. 2 (1876) 
172; in Oliver FL Trop. Afr. 3 (1877) 182. — Froehner in Notizbl. K. 
Bot. Mus. (1897) 234. — K. Schum. in Engl. & Prantl Nat. Pflanzenfam. 
4, Abt. 4, Nachtr. (1897) 3i5- — Raoul Cult. Cafeier in Man. Cult. 
Trop. de Raoul & Sagot pt. i, 2 (1897) 229, 232. — Hiern Welw. Cat. 
Afr. PL 2 (1898) 489.— Froehner in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 25 (1898) 274.— 
Lecomte Le Cafe (1899) 40. — Cornaillac El Cafe, la Vainilla, el 
Cacao, etc. (1903) 36. — L. H. Bail. Stand. Cycl. Hort. 2 (1914) 823. 

Economic and Cultural References: — Lanessan PL Util. Col. Frang. 
(1886) 883.— Sebire Les PL UtiL Senegal (1899) i79-— Hartwich Die 
Menschlich. Genuszm. (1911) 273, 306. — Van Wijk Diet. PL Names 
I (1911) 347. 

Coffea Swynnertonii S. Moore in Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 40 (1911) 

95. 

A greatly branched shrub, terete, bearing glabrous (viscid when 
young) ash-colored bark, with transverse fissures. Leaves small, oblong 
or oblong-lanceolate, obtuse, petiole short, attenuated; blade thinly 
coriaceous, entirely glabrous on both sides; secondary veins of both 
surfaces forming 5 or more ascending arches below, and spread out 
above from the midrib to the margin, and considerably recurved; 
stipules awl-shaped, widened at the base, rigid. Flowers synanthous, 
axillary, often 2 to 4; pedicel short, with simple calyculus possessing 
dentate margin; corolla smooth, funnel-shaped tube; lobes 8 to 9, 
narrow, ovate-oblong, obtuse, very little longer than the tube; calyx- 
limb very brief, obscurely denticulate; stamens 8 to 9, filaments ex- 
serted, bearing 4-partite, shorter, oblong, obtuse anthers; style ex- 
serted, elongated arms linear. Fruit berry-like, narrow, ovoid-oblong, 
dry, 2-seeded. Perennial shrub, flowering in October and fruiting 
in December. 

Diagnostic Characters of the Species: — Leaves vary from 2.5 cm. 
by I cm. wide to 3.5 cm. long by 1.8 cm. wide in size, copiously 
furnished with white microscopic punctures above; rather olive 
color or brown above when dry, paler beneath; petiole about 2 mm. 
long; stipules 2 mm. to 2.5 mm. long. Pedicel 1.5 mm. to 2 mm. 
long. Calyculus scarcely i mm. long. Flowers white. Ovary i mm. 




PLATE 26: COFFEA CANEPHORA PIERRE EX FROEHNER 



71 



72 COFFEE 

long. Calyx 0.3 mm. long. Corolla-tube 7 mm. long by 1.5 mm. 
wide at the base, 4.5 mm. wide at throat ; lobes not over 9 mm. long. 
Filaments 1.5 mm. long, anthers 5 to 6 mm. long. Style 11 mm. long, 
stigmatic arms 5 mm. long. Fruit 9 mm. long, 6.5 mm. wide; seeds 
5.5 mm. long, dark-gray. 

Common Name: — Inyambane Coffee. 

Geographical Distribution : — Chirinda at 900 M. ; Madanda for- 
ests at 120 M.; Portuguese East Africa. 

History: — Coffea Swynnertoiiii S. Moore was collected and de- 
scribed by Mr. Moore and published in the Journal of the Linn. 
Soc. Bot. 40 (1911) 95. 

This species is very similar to C. stenophylla G. Don from which 
it differs chiefly in the much smaller and non caudate-acuminate 
leaves, the short stipules, the short-toothed calyculus, and the smaller 
berries and seeds. Mr. Moore's specimen No. 2133 is the plant 
in flower; and No. 578 is surm.ised by Mr. Swynnerton, and ac- 
cording to the publication of the Linnaean Society correctly so, to be 
the fruiting stage; No. 579 (in fruit) from the vicinity of the 
mouth of the Buzi river where the settlers designate an identical 
form — often with somewhat larger leaves (4.5 cm. long by 2 cm. 
wide) than is accredited in the original species description — as Iny- 
ambane coffee. This coffee grows wild in quantities along the Jua- 
baba River in Portuguese East Africa, at an altitude of about 300 
metres. Seed was brought from this region a few years ago; and 
the beverage prepared from these berries is said to be of excellent 
quality and much used by the settlers. 

Use: — As a substitute for the seeds of C. arabica L. 

Bibliography: — Moore in Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 40 (1911) 95. 

Coffea canephora Pierre ex Froehner in Notizbl. d. Kgl. Bot. 
Mus. 7 (1897) 233, 237. 

A tree or shrub bearing dark brownish gray, faint, longitudinally 
striated branches. Leaves nearly elliptical, narrowed at both extremi- 
ties about 17 cm. wide and 25 cm. long (in its varieties, sometimes 
varying 15 cm. to 30 cm. long by 5 cm. to 11 cm.) in size; upper side 
glossy, dark green; lower side more yellow; 13 paired veins of the 
first order, and the finely netted venation is also prominent on lower 
side as well as the paired veins; petiole about 1.5 cm. long. Stipules 




PLATE 27: COFFEA CANEPHORA PIERRE EX FROEHNER 



73 



74 COFFEE 

about 0.7 cm. long, narrowed from a common base to the tips, dis- 
tinct and prominent midrib elongated into a linear point. Inflores- 
cence in large clusters. Flowers in sets of i to 6 in an axillary 
head surrounded with a double set of involucral bracts or calycules 
below the calyx; outer bracts of 2 short, triangular lobes and 2 
elongated lobes at least twice as long as the others; inner calyculus 
of short lobes; 3 to 5 flowers shortly pedicelled; corolla is about the 
size of C. liberica Bull, and 5- (rarely 4-) merous; tube 0.9 cm. 
(varying in its varieties from .5 cm. to 1.4 cm.) long, lobes lanceolate, 
broadened about 1.3 cm. (in its varieties 0.7 cm. to 1.5 cm.) long; 
calyx bears 4 very short teeth. Anthers i cm. long, acuminate; fila- 
ment 0.3 to 0.4 cm. long, attached to the lower third of the anther. 
Stigma of style 1.2 cm. long, exserted. Fruit about 1.4 cm. to 1.3 cm. 
long by 0.8 cm. wide; on the rounded side, the suture of the carpels 
continues as a deep groove. The reddish brown outer portion appears 
above the calyx scar ; pedicel short, surrounded by the withered 
calyculus in a collar-like fashion. By the frequent abortion of one 
seed, half of the fruit arches itself over so that the calyx scar and 
pedicel appear closely approximated. 

Diagnostic Characters of the Species: — Note the fruit descrip- 
tion above. Flowers very numerous (up to 40) in a fascicle. Fruit 
mass may be 5 cm. in diameter. 

Geographical Distribution : — African Tropics ; Native Coffee of 
Ishiras; Gabon (Herb. L. Pierre R.S.K. No. 247) ; Java and Mada- 
gascar by introduction. 

History: — Coffea canephora Pierre ex Froehner was collected in 
Gabon, Africa, and was described in 1897. It is a very precocious 
species, and often yields 100 kg. of coffee per acre at the age of 
four years. In equatorial regions, it may be cultivated up to an 
altitude of 800 metres. It has been introduced and cultivated in 
Madagascar and Java, where plantations yield 600 to 900 kg. of 
coffee per acre. C. canephora Pierre ex Froehner is susceptible to 
Hemileia vastatrix; and this fact has hindered its extended cultivation. 
The caffeine-content of the seeds is 1.97%. 

This species is exceedingly variable and as many as nine varieties 
have been described. Pierre recognized and described seven of which 
I believe only one is distinct enough in its individualistic composition 
to warrant description as a separate economic form at the present 



EUCOFFEA HOOK. F. 75 

writing. M. Pierre lists and describes in manuscript, C. canephora 
Pierre ex Froehner var. Hiernii Pierre mss. ex DeWild. ; C. cane- 
phora Pierre ex Froehner var. Hinaultii Pierre mss. ex DeWild. ; C. 
canephora Pierre ex Froehner var. kouilouensis Pierre mss. ex De- 
Wild. ; C. canephora Pierre ex Froehner var. muniensis Pierre mss. 
ex DeWild. ; C. canephora Pierre ex Froehner var. oligoneura Pierre 
mss. ex DeWild. ; C. canephora Pierre ex Froehner var. Trillesii 
Pierre mss. ex DeWild. ; C. canephora Pierre ex Froehner var. 
Wildemannii Pierre mss. ex DeWild. In addition to these varieties, 
one finds the variety opaca Pierre in Bull. Jard. Col. Nogent-sur- 
Marne (1904) 117 f .c. ; and the variety sankuruensis DeWild. in 
DeWild. Miss. Laurent 3 (1906) 333 t. 77 f. 52, 53. 

It seems probable, as M. Pierre himself suggests, that these varie- 
ties will be placed in synonymy by further study or at best, I believe, 
will only be elevated to forms of C. canephora Pierre ex Froehner 
or subvarieties of the distinct variety C. canephora Pierre ex Froeh- 
ner var. kouilouensis Pierre mss. ex DeWild. I find myself unable 
to obtain sufficient material to straighten out this obvious tangle. 

Use: — C. canephora Pierre ex Froehner is superior to many coffees 
in productivity and in the quality of the infusion prepared from its 
seeds. Its seeds are widely used wherever it is indigenous, for the 
seeds C. arabica L. 

Bibliography: — Froehner in Notizbl. d. Kgl. Bot. Mus. 7 (1897) 233, 
237. — K. Schum. in Engl. & Prantl Nat. Pflanzenfam. 4, Abt. 4, Nachtr. 
(1897) 315-— T. Dur. & DeWild. Mat. Fl. Congo. 2 (1898) 75 — 
Froehner in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 25 (1898) 254, 269. — Lecomte Le Cafe 
(1899) 32-35 t. 33, f. 6 (habit). — DeWild. Les Cafeiers i (1901) 19, 37. 
— Cornaillac El Cafe, la Vainilla, el Cacao, etc. (1903) 32. — DeWild. 
Miss. Laurent 3 (1906) 330; PL Trop. Grand. Cult, i (1908) 89 t. 17. 
— Compagnie Kasai (1910) i. — Chev. Explor. Bot. Afr. Occid. Frang. 
I (1920) 335. 

Economic and Cultural References: — Pobequin Essai sur la Fl. Guin. 
Frang. (1906) 352. — Fauchere Cult. Prat. Cafeier (1908) 8. — Agric. 
News Barbados 9 (1910) 133. — Harwich Die Menschlich. Genuszm. 
(1911) 825. — Perrot Travaux Lab. Mat. Med. Ecole Super, de Pharm. 
de Paris pt. 5, 10 (1913-1916) No. 3, pg. 10; Perrot Les Grand. Prod. 
Veget. Col. Frang. (1915) 421-37, 424 t. 33- 

Cojfea canephora Pierre ex Froehner var. kouilouensis Pierre mss. 
ex DeWild. Les Cafeiers (1901) 21. 

A small tree bearing large, elliptical leaves. Leaves sometimes 



76 COFFEE 

rather small, rounded or cuneiform toward the base, acuminate at 
the apex; petiole thick, 15 mm. long; blade up to 25 cm. long by 10 
cm. wide; paired lateral veins 10 to 13, usually 12, stout and promi- 
nent on both surfaces. Inflorescences in compact heads with double 
calycules surrounding i to 6 flowers, commonly 4 in one group. 
Flowers 5-merous ; corolla-tube 5 mm. long in adult flowers, about 
as long as the corolla-lobes, occasionally longer. Fruit i cm. long, 
furrowed, nearly sessile ; seed 7 mm. long by 4.5 mm. to 5 mm. wide, 
distinctly smaller than the seeds of C. canephora Pierre ex Froehner. 

Diagnostic Characters of the Variety. — Leaves vary, on different 
specimens and on the same plant, from a rounded to a cuneiform 
base. Leaves are longer, more elliptical, with more accentuated cross 
veins than in C. canephora Pierre ex Froehner. Corolla is as large 
as that of C. canephora Pierre ex Froehner but the lobes are usually 
a little longer than corolla-tube in this variety. 

Geographical Distribution : — Indigenous in Mayomke and Kouilou. 
Cultivated in Luvituku and Mayomke, Gabon, and especially along 
Kouilou. 

History: — This variety was collected by R. P. Klaine (No. 1928a) 
in August, 1900, and (No. 1928b) in January, 1901, in Gabon. 
M. Pierre distinguishes three subvarieties ; namely, C. canephora 
Pierre ex Froehner var. kouilouensis Pierre mss. ex DeWild. sub- 
varieties grisea, flavescens^ and iati folia which are separated mainly 
on the leaf characteristics of hue and size, both of which are tre- 
mendously variable in this variety and species; so much so that I 
hardly consider it justifiable to utilize these distinctions in this regard. 
This variety itself deserves and is receiving Increased attention in 
cultivation. 

Use: — As a substitute for the seeds of C. arabica L. 

Bibliography: — DeWild. Les. Cafeiers (1901) 21. — Miss. Laurent 3 
(1906) 334 t. loi.— T. Dur. & H. Dur. Syll. Fl. Congol. (1909) 276. 

Economic and Cultural References: — DeWild. Les Cafeiers (1901) 
22; PL Trop. Grand. Cult, i (1908) 89.— Hartwich Die Menschlich. 
Genuszm. (1911) 825.— Perrot Les Grand. Prod. Veg. Col. FranQ. 
(1915) 430. 

Coffea liberica Bull In Retail List. New, Beautlf. & Rare PL No. 
97 (1874) 4. 

A glabrous, evergreen shrub or tree, 5.4 M. to 10.8 M. high, 




PLATE 28: COFFEA CANEPHORA PIERRE EX FROEHNER 
VAR. KOUILOUENSIS PIERRE 
From DeWild. Miss. Laur. 3 (1906) t. 101. 



77 



78 COFFEE 

glossy in appearance because of the nature of the leaves. Branches 
glabrous, spreading, subterete, somewhat compressed toward the free 
extremities. Leaves 11.3 cm. to 15 cm. to 30 cm. long by 3.75 cm. 
to 5.0 cm. to 1 1.9 cm. wide; elliptical-obovate, shortly acuminate, 
cuneiform or obtusely narrowed at the base, somewhat undulated at 
the margin, thinly coriaceous, dark, glossy green above, lighter and 
dull beneath, paired lateral veins 8 to 12 with axillary glands open- 
ing by a small aperture beneath; petiole 0.9 cm. to 1.6 cm. long; 
stipules broadly ovate, apiculate, connate at the base, shorter than 
the petiole, stipule 0.3 cm. to 0.4 cm. long. Flowers 6- to 8-merous, 
subsessile, several in a cluster, axillary, 2.5 cm. long when expanded; 
bracteoles connate, calyculate, depresso-deltoid, subtruncate, all short- 
er than the subtruncate calyx; sometimes one oval bracteole is pro- 
duced above the others; corolla-lobes 6 to 8, oval, obtuse, about as 
long as the tube, spreading. Anthers 6 to 8, wholly exserted, 1.25 
cm. long; filaments 0.62 cm. long. Style exserted, bifid; calyx-limb 
annular, very short. Fruit in globular or oval berry-like form, 1.9 
cm. to 2.5 cm. long or even more, yellowish-red, turning black when 
mature; seeds 1.25 cm. or more long. Mature fruit remains hang- 
ing on plant for 2 months, and remains hard and fibrous. Caffeine- 
content of the seed 1.29 to 1.68%. 

Diagnostic Characters of the Species: — Leaves larger than any 
other economic species. Flowers in bloom nearly the entire year; 
I bracteole often produced above the others. Berry larger than any 
other economic species ; pericarp 5 times as wide as C. arabica L. 
and has fibro-vascular bundles not only in the inner half but inter- 
mixed, in limited number, in the outer portion ; thereby restricting 
the very considerable tenacity of the tissue. The thicker meso- 
carp corresponds to a still thicker endocarp. 

Synonymy: — Coffea arabica Benth. in Hook. Nig. Fl. (1849) 413. 

Common Names: — Liberian Giant or Liberian Coffee; Abeokuta 
Coffee; Monrovian Coffee. 

Geographical Distribution: — Native of West Africa; Liberia; 
S. W. Africa, Golumgo Alto, Cazengo; abundant and indigenous 
along river Luinha. Widely distributed and cultivated in Trop. 
Africa. Introduced into India, Ceylon, Madagascar, West Indies, 
Brazil, Guiana, Surinam, East Indies, Java, etc. 



EUCOFFEA HOOK. F. 79 

History: — Liberian Coffee Is native in the negro republic, Liberia, 
and was early introduced into other regions along the West African 
coast, from Sierra Leone to Angola, This large-berried coffee was 
called to the attention of Sir Joseph Hooker in 1872, at which period 
Coffea liberica Bull was under cultivation in the Gold Coast and 
in Sierra Leone. During the same year, Sir John Pope Hennessy, 
Governor of the West African Settlements, sent nine plants to Kew; 
but they were dead upon arrival. About this time, however, Mr. 
C. S. Salmon, acting administrator of the Gold Coast, made it 
possible to obtain 480 seeds from the Rev. T. B. Freeman, who had 
a plantation of coffee on the Secoom River near Accra. Plants 
from these seeds were raised in India; and the following year Mr. 
Bull of Chelsea, England, imported living plants. He published 
the first description of it as Coffea liberica Bull. This name was 
adopted by Mr. Hiern in his paper "On the African species of the 
genus Coffea,'' in the Trans. Linn. Soc, ser. 2, i (1876) 169-176, 
where he described it in detail, and figured the plant under the 
name given by Mr. Bull in preference to an unpublished manuscript 
name in the Herbarium of Afzelius. 

This species became known in Europe about the time the coffee- 
leaf disease appeared in Ceylon. It was claimed that it was resist- 
ant to this fungus disease; and the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew 
supplied plants and seeds to Indian and Ceylon planters. Moreover, 
it was hailed as a species which flourished at sea level whereas C. 
arahica L. required the hilly and mountainous districts of the tropics 
for successful cultivation. These two factors resulted in its imme- 
diate introduction into all tropical regions. It has attained its most 
extensive cultivation, excepting its native habitat in West Africa, in 
the West Indies, Ceylon, Malay Peninsula (Selangor), North 
Borneo, Sumatra, Java, and India where it is mainly grown in Sylhet, 
Assam, Burma, and the Andaman 1. Laerne says that it is "little 
thought of" in Brazil since "it produces little and that irregularly." 
It is rather extensively cultivated along the eastern coast of Mada- 
gascar, where hybrids have arisen which produce a superior product. 
Hybrids have occurred in other localities wherever Arabian and 
Liberian coffee are grown in approximation. The hybrids are said 
to be immune or but very^ slightly susceptible to the leaf-blight. 



Trana.lste.&Se.Scr. Zfet-VoU Tab. 24. 




PLATE 29: COFFEA LIBERICA BULL 
From Hiern in Trans. Linn. Soc. ser. 2, 1 (1876) t. 24. 



8o 




PLATE 30: COFFEA LIBERICA BULL 



8i 



\<\5H'] 



82 COFFEE 

Grafting of Liberian on to Arabian coffee has not been successful. 
The reverse graft, however, is promising. Such plants suffer less 
from the attacks of parasites than the ungrafted specimens, especially 
from such an enemj^ as nematode worms which frequentlj^ attack the 
roots of C. arahica L. but do not attack C. liherica Bull. This, the 
hardy Liberian Root System and the grafted Arabian plant, pro- 
duces stems in a very desirable combination (see Fauchere Cult. 
Prat. Cafeier (1908) text t. 8). 

Liberian seems to have some distinct advantages over Arabian 
coffee; for the former yields regularly and freely, its fruits do not 
fall as soon as mature, and it is a much hardier species. The berries 
are more difficult to clean than the Arabian coffee-berries; but spe- 
cial machinery will deprive them, of even the parchment. The beans 
are rank and oily. If carefully and slowly dried, however, they 
bring a price sufficient to reimburse one for the trouble and expense 
of the preparation. 

At the present time (1924) Liberian Coffee is considered by the 
planters of the tropical plains to be superior to Arabian, and is 
largely grown in India and Java. In America, Arabian coffee still 
holds its own. The 'pro' and 'con' in regard to Liberian Coffee can 
be shown by quoting — with a few additions — from Kew Bull. (1890) 
247-8 as follows: 

( 1 ) It is not susceptible to the fungus, or only in such a way 
that the health of the tree is but slightly affected; at least, much 
less so than C. arahica L. 

(2) It is a tree attaining a height up to 9 M. before fifteen 
3 ears of age; and consequently, it is not injured by drought. 

(3) Judging by trees under cultivation, and the way they continue 
to grow, and by the fact that they do not begin to bear until 4 to 5 
years old, this species may be taken as much longer lived. 

(4) It is a heavier bearing tree when once well started; those 
under the observation of the writer in Kew Bull, for 1890 yielded 
10 to 20 cwt. per acre. This is considerable when one calculates 
the amount of clean coffee 5aelded and finds that only 700 trees 
to the acre can be grown instead of at least double that number of 
C. arahica L. 

(5) Being deep-rooted, it is not affected by drought, while a very 
slight shower is quite sufficient to bring out and set the blossom; 



EUCOFFEA HOOK. F. 83 

which has the further advantage of fading and falling off within 
the day of Its opening, so that It Is hardly possible that It can be 
Injured by rain or hall as Is so often the case with the delicate C. 
arabica L. blossom. Even In the driest season, when other plants 
appear on the point of destruction, these look cool and green and 
do not even turn a leaf. 

(6) Cultivation cost Is slight. No pruning Is required beyond 
pulling off suckers for the first three years. The crop Is borne on 
the same areas of the tree (or extensions of them) year after year; 
therefore, no old wood Is to be cut out. The tree's being tall and 
thick, prevents the growth of weeds In large numbers; and If they 
grow they do not affect the plant as It is deep-rooted. 

(7) Berries — size of small walnuts — remain fixed on the tree for 
many weeks after they are ripe enough to be picked; eventually they 
fall off and may be gathered from the ground. In case of labor 
scarcity, this fact Is a great advantage. 

Against these good points, one may set the following: 

( 1 ) This species gives very little return until at least the fifth 
year, while some return Is obtained from Arabian coffee plants In 
the second year. 

(2) The commercial market value seems, as a rule, to be less. 

(3) The flowering season Is mainly In March and April, and 
berries take 14 months to ripen, i.e., until July of the following year. 
Thus, the tree carries two crops at one time, all mixed together in 
the same branches. At the same time, one can see large reddening 
fruit approaching maturity, small fruit about the size of a pea, of 
the current season, and also large, heavily scented blossoms. All 
these mixed together among the large, dark, glossy leaves give the 
tree an exceedingly rich and handsome appearance. 

Uses: — As Coffea arabica L. substitute. The beans are of a 
coarser flavor but are used universally by middlemen to strengthen 
grades which by themselves are flavorless. The seeds contain 1.29 
to 1.68% of caffeine. Liberian coffee which grows wild and culti- 
vated throughout Liberia and the entire Guinean Coast, is exported 
chiefly to England and Europe. 

Bibliography:— Bull in Retail List New, Beautlf., & Rare PL No. 
97 (1874) 4-— Hiern In Trans. Linn. Soc. ser. 2, (1876) 171 t. 24; 
in Card. Chron. ser. 2, 6 (July 1876) 105 t. 27 f. b (berry) c (leaf).— 



rx. c a. T&o.\jI 




rr^d:.VMu.i, S,ct,. 




r L NN fe.Tr 




^ 



Fr^a^ 



(5 



5eeA 



IMCHtS « 2| 3| •*( St . «1^ 

1 1 ! i { 1 1 hj f f n 1 1 i til 1 1 J J 1 1 ij i j I ' 1 ! i! i t ,!.!,] t ! It t i 1 1)1 iiiitiiiUmiiitmintft i iJ t.Liii ill jjjJi! m 
PLATE 31: COFFEA LIBERICA BULL 



84 



Co|"^e.aL I i WeT tea Ifeull 




Dray*N V»w. T^ rci X)\-^S& 0p(lVhM.n Ho.3%'5 

Collected \nsu 



*CHtS " 2» J( 'B 5j *| 

jMhnfiulnHnilnHinlnUiniiufMitfnlnilnilniiHiHiilmiutftiiUMSiMh.iliMi 
PLATE 32: COFFEA LIBERICA BULL 



85 




618142 



*L MUSEUM 






Ooffoa llberiea Elorn- 

1076 CloroayT3ua In Ireww. 



Ootlactol In tho Botanio fJapdon.of tho Jlu«9U Goold* 
Para, Draill, April, . 1908, h? O.F,8o£or' Grww 

a otaall troo 10-15 fiiot, anrt b»iirB hoaTHy 6t fte» •? 
m<oh moru h3»vlljr in this low nolat cowjtry Ihaai «CM 
iifferR IMS from fwMl aMi 



Ooffaa ar»M<i», »nd also fuffers 



PLATE 33: COFFEA LI BE RICA BULL 

86 




PLATE 34: COFFEA LIBERICA BULL 

87 



88 COFFEE 

Oliver Fl. Trop. Afr. 3 (1877) 181. — United States Dept. Agric. Rep. 
(1878) 194 t. I (young plant).— DC. Orig. Cult. PI. (Fr. ed. 1883) 
336; (Eng. ed. 1885) 418. — Burck in Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 4 (1884) 
56 t. 6, f. 52. — Ficalho PL Uteis (1884) 204. — Mueller Select Extra- 
Trop. PL ed. 7 (1888) 108.— Kew BulL (1888) 261-263; (1890) 107, 
245-253; (1892) 277-282; (1893) 204-206; (1894) 132; (1895) 12, 
21, 273, 296-299; (1896) 77-79; (1897) 325-328; (1919) 57.— Andre 
in Rev. Hort. (1890) 104 f. 30, 31. — Herzsohn (transl. of Burck's 
Mss.) in Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 8 (1890) 148. — Vankeirsbilck in 
Rev. Agric. 10 (1896) 135-137, 162. — U. S. Year Bk. Dept. Agric. 
(1897) 197. — Editor in Der Tropenpflanzer i (1897) 290-296. — Froeh- 
ner in Notizbl. K. Bot. Mus. 7 (1897) 233. — K. Schum. in EngL & 
Prantl Nat. Pflanzenfam. 4, Abt. 4, (1891) 103 f. 36, 105, Nachtr. 

(1897) 315-— Raoul Cult. Cafeier in Man. Cult. Trop. de Raoul & 
Sagot pt. I, 2 (1897) 229, 231. — Froehner in EngL Bot. Jahrb. 25 

(1898) 269.— Hiern Welw. Cat. Afr. PL 2 (1898) 489.— Lecomte 
Le Cafe (1899) 35 t. 37 f. 6; Cat. PL Econ. in Hort. CoL (1900) 63, 
64. — Zimmermann Ueber den Krebs v. C. arabica L., verurs. durch 
Rostrella Coffees gen. & sp. n. in Bull. Inst. Bot. Buitenz. 4 (1900) 
21. — DeWild. Les Cafeiers i (1901) 18, 39; & Miss. Laurent 3 (1906) 
338 t. 104. — Valeton Die Art. d. Gattung. Coffea L., Prismatomeris 
Thw. u. Lachnostoma Korth. in Bull. Inst. Bot. Buitenz. No. 8 (1901) 
15. — Cornaillac El Cafe, la Vainilla, el Cacao, etc. (1903) 33. — Saf- 
ford in Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. 9 (1905) 245 (Useful PL Guam). — 
Pobequin Essai Fl. Guin. Frang. (1906) 316. — Corr. Fl. Braz. (1909) 
5. — DeWild. Compagnie Kasai (1910) i. — Wettstein Handb. Syst. Bot. 
(1911) 758 f. 532. — L. H. Bail. Stand. Cycl. Hort. 2 (1914) 823. — 
Engl. & Gilg Syll. Pflanzenfam. ed. 8 (1919) 339. — Chev. Explor. 
Bot. Afr. Occid. Frang. i (1920) 336. 

Economic and Cultural References: — Christy "The New Liber. 
Giant Coffee," in New Comm. PL k Drugs No. i (1878) 1-7, t. i.— 
Ernst El Cafe Liberia en Venezuela (1878) 108, t. i.— A. M. & J. 
Ferguson Liber. Coif, in Ceylon; The Hist, of Introd. & Progr. of 
Cult. w. Inform, on Soil, Climate & Mode of Cult., Estimates of Cost 
of Plantat., References to Cult, in Afr., India, W. I., etc., and a Series 
of Letters on Liberia by Criiwell; Compiled from columns of Ceylon 
Observer (1878) 1-36, 177. — Morris Notes on Liber. Coff., Its Hist. 
Cult, in Ann. Rep. Pub. Gard. & Plantat. Jamaica (1883) 15; (1894) 
40; I.e. Fawcett (1900) 3, 5; (1901) 3. — Nichols Cult. Liber. Coff. 
W. I. (1881); reprinted from Timehri (Demerara) 3, pt. 2 (1884) 
1-22. — Lanessan Les PL Util. CoL Frang. (1886) 28, 828. — Tschirch 
Ind. Heil- u. Nutzpflanz. Cult. (1892) 58-73, t. 34. — Hart Coffea liberica 
in CoL Rep. Misc. No. 3 (1893) 15-17. — Fawcett Liber. Coff. in BulL 
Bot. Dept. Jamaica pt. i, i (1894) 1-14 w. fig. and descript. of pulpers. 
— Hart Liber. Coff. in Bull. Misc. Inform. Roy. Bot. Gard. Trinidad 
(July 1894) 267-273. — Fawcett Liber. Coff. in Bull. Bot. Dept. Jamaica 
pt. 7, 2 (1895) 145. — Burck De Gouvernements-Koffiecult. Met. Betrek- 
king Tot De Volkswelvaart (1897) 1 15-129. — Hiittenbach Cult. Liber. 
Coff. reprinted from Selangor Journ. (1897) 1-59- — Raoul Cult. Cafeier 
in Man. Cult. Trop. de Raoul & Sagot. pt. i, 2 (1897) 96, t. I. — 







PLATE 35: COFFEA LIBERICA BULL 



8q 



90 COFFEE 

Morris "Notes on Coffea liberica Bull," in Ferguson Coffee Plant. 
Man. (1898) 229-279. — Boutilly V. Le Cafeier de Liberia sa cult, et sa 
manig. (1900). — Jumelle Les Cult. Col. PI. Aliment, i (1901) 379-384; 
Agric. Prat. Pays Chauds 2 (1902) 169, 624. — Cramer De Achteruitgang 
van de Liber. Koffie op Java; Welke Houding Moeten Wij. Tegenover 
Haar Aannemen in Teysmannia 18 (1907) 762-780. — Freeman & Chand. 
World's Comm. Prod. (1907) 176 (pi. in flow.), 178 (in flow. & fr.), 
185 (pi. 3 to 4 yrs. old in Java). — Fauchere Cult. Prat. Cafeier (1908) 
7. — Hare, Caspari, Rusby Nat. Stand. Dispens. ed. 2 (1908) 340-344. 
— Dudgeon Agric. k For. Prod. Brit. W. Afr. (1911) 35. — Hartwich 
Die Menschlich. Genuszm. (1911) 273. — Van Wijk G. Diet. PI. Names 
(1911) 346. — Wehmer Pflanzenstoffe (1911) 733- — Perrot Travaux 
Lab. Mat. Med. Ecole Super, de Pharm. de Paris pt. 5, 10 (1913-1916) 
No. 3, pg. 9; Les Grand. Prod. Veget. Col. Frang. (191 5) 421, 422 t. 32, 
423-437; Nigeria 3 (1915) 364-366. — Gamble Man. Ind. Timbers ed. 
2 (1922) 422. 

Coffea robusta Linden in Cat. PL Econ. Col. Hort. Col. Bruxelles 
(1900) 64, t. 65. 

A small tree, 3 M. to 3.6 M. high. Branches stout, terete, 
glabrous. Leaves large, 25 cm. long by 15 cm. wide as a maximum, 
oblong-elliptic, obtusely caudate-acuminate, rounded at the base, 
chartaceous, dull on both surfaces, glabrous ; midrib fiat above, promi- 
nent below; 9 to 12 paired lateral veins, looped and much branched 
within the margin, slightly arcuate, diverging from the midrib at an 
angle of 45 degrees, lateral veins distinct above, prominent below, 
veins lax; petiole 1.25 cm. long, glabrous; stipules interpetiolar, 
broadly triangular, long-mucronate, 0.6 cm. to 0.8 cm. long, about 
0.8 cm. broad at the base. Flowers in dense axillary clusters, about 
4.4 cm. in diameter, commonly with a few small leaves intermixed ; 
corolla 5-merous, tube i cm. long; calyx minute, entire; anthers 
exserted, i cm. long, slightly twisted when dry. Fruit 1.25 cm. in 
diameter, about the size of C. arahica L. and C. stenophylla G. Don 
or about one half the size of C. liberica Bull; outer skin thin; 2- 
seeded ; cherry-like in color when ripe. 

Diagnostic Characters of the Species: — General outline of the 
tree is rounded. Leaves large, handsome; 9 to 12 lateral veins, 
greatly looped within the margin; stipules 0.6 cm. to 0.8 cm. long 
by 0.8 cm. wide. Fruit 2-seeded and about the size of C. arabica L. 

Synonymy: — Coffea Laurentii Wildem. in Compt. Rend. Congr. 
Intern. Bot. (1900) 234. 




PLATE 36: COFFEA ROBUST A LINDEN 



91 



92 COFFEE 

Common Names: — Wild Congo Coffee; Robusta CofEee; Rio 
Nunez CoJEfee. 

Geographical Distribution: — Native of the Congo, Africa. Now 
cultivated throughout Tropical Africa, and introduced into Java, 
Sumatra, Trinidad, and India. 

History: — Coffea robusta Linden was originally collected in the 
Congo region of Africa. It was first described in 1900. Its value 
as a cultivated coffee was first realized in Java. Seeds were sent 
from Brussels to Java in 1900. In 19 15, it occupied some thou- 
sands of acres interplanted with Hevea brasiliensis (H.B.K.) Muell.- 
Arg. or Para Rubber. This species of coffee was introduced into 
the Botanic Gardens at Entebbe, Uganda, in 1901. Seedlings were 
sent out from that station as well as from Kew, England. In 1912, 
sixty-five acres were under cultivation in Uganda. In 19 15-19 16, 
many more trees were planted. This species is very prolific. It 
grows along banks of streams and prefers moist situations and not 
too shady a habitat. Like Liberian coffee, it is well adapted for 
growing at low elevations, from sea level to over 600 M. It has 
the advantage of possessing the robust habit of C. liberica Bull and 
the superior quality and the delicate aroma of C. arabica L. The 
plant is not, like C. liberica Bull, pyramidal in form, but is rounded 
in outline. Since it first became known from the Rio Nunez river 
region, it is frequently referred to as Rio Nunez coffee. C. robusta 
Linden matures very early; and, at the age of four years, it pro- 
duces nearly 200 kilogrammes of coffee per hectare (about 2 acres). 
This species frequently yields 500 grammes of coffee when only 
three years old. Mature plantations in Java produce 1200 kilo- 
grammes per hectare. Although this species does not yield as 
heavily as some, its extensive cultivation in India and Ceylon is 
assured since it matures early, grows well at low levels, and, up 
to the present time at least, has completely resisted the coffee-leaf 
fungus — Hemileia vastatrix. There were large areas of C. robusta 
Linden planted in the Uganda Protectorate in 19 19. In 1920, 
there were 260 acres of C. robusta Linden in Uganda. 

Use: — C. robusta Linden is cultivated on a commercial scale as 
a substitute for C. arabica L. 

Bibliography: — Linden in Cat. PL Econ. Col. Hort. Col. Bruxelles 
(1900) 64, t. 65.— Kew Bull. (1901) App. 3, 88.— DeWild. Miss. E. 



EUCOFFEA HOOK. F. 93 

Laurent 3 (1906) 328; Compagnie Kasai (1910) i. — Editor "Robusta 
Coffee" in Bull. Imp. Inst. 10 (1912) 454-465. — Kew Bull. (1919) 57. 
Economic and Cultural References: — Editor in Gard. Chron. (May 
16, 1903) 306 (C. Laurentii). — Watt Comm. Prod. Ind. (1908) 370. — 
Abstract in Ind. Rubber Journ. (June 13, 1910) 791 "Coffea Robusta 
as a Catch Crop for Para Rubber." — Gallagher in Bull. Dept. Agric. 
Fed. Malay States No. 7 (1910) 1-7. — Cramer "Une Nouv. Cult. 
Intercalaire pour les Arbres a Caoutchouc de Para. — Le Cafe Robusta" 
in Bull. Soc. Beige Etud. Col. 18 (Feb., 191 1) 101-117, 109 (habit). — 
Editor in Agric. News, Barbados 9 (1910) 133; 10 (1911) 132, reprinted 
as Cope's Planting Leaflet No. i (1912) 1-7. — Hartwich Die Men- 
schlich. Genuszm. (1911) 825. — DeWild. "Etud. sur le Coffea robusta" 
in Bull. Assoc. Plant. Caoutchouc No. 12, 4 (Dec, 1912) 274-276; 
No. 2, 5 (Feb., 1913) 28-31. — Nigeria 3 (1915) 366. — Perrot Travaux 
Lab. Mat. Med. Ecole Super, de Pharm. de Paris pt. 5, 10 (1913-1916) 
no. 3, pg. 9; Les Grand. Prod. Veget. Col. Franc. (1915) 424, 429, 430 
t. 34, 436. — Editor in Bull. Imp. Inst. 20 (1922) no. 3, pg. 295, 296, 299. 

Coffea excelsa A. Chev. in Rev. Cult. Col. 12 (1903) 258. 

A tree, 6 M. to 15 M. high, bearing grayish and longitudinally 
fissured bark. Leaves 18 cm. to 28 cm. long by 9 cm. to 12 cm. 
wide; petiole short, i cm. long; lamina usually obovate-Ianceolate, 
sometimes obovate-spathulate or slightly club-shaped, ending abruptly 
in an obtuse apex; 6 to 9 paired lateral veins, raised on the lower 
surface. Inflorescence in axillary cymes, i to 5 flowers in each 
cyme. Flowers white, fragrant. Each cyme is surrounded by 2 
to 3 calycules with resinous surfaces more or less fringed at the 
margin. Corolla total length 20 mm.; tube 8 mm. to 10 mm. long; 
lobes, always 5 in number, 10 mm. to 12 mm. long by 6 mm. wide; 
stamens entirely green in color, 10 mm. long, anthers occupy about 
6 mm. and the filaments 4 mm.; style slender, 15 mm. to 20 mm. 
long, 2 filiform stigmatic processes ; calyx greatly reduced or absent, 
shorter than the disk, calyx-lobe rather circular. Caffeine-content 
of the seed is 1.89%. 

Diagnostic Characters of the Species: — Leaves very large. Sta- 
mens wholly green in color. Flowers in February and March. 

Common Name : — Senoussi Coffee. 

Geographical Distribution: — Tropical Africa; Sudan; Central 
Africa; Chari River Region; Bata ; Kotto. 

History: — This gigantic species, which occasionally reaches the 
height of 20 M., was discovered in the region of Lake Tchad in 
1904, and was described by A. Chevalier in 1905. It grows abun- 



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CoilKesL excelsa A-CW. 



PLATE 37: COFFEA EXCELSA A. CHEV. 
94 



EUCOFFEA HOOK. F. 95 

dantly in the eastern forest along the Chari river, Africa, between 
8° and 8°3o' latitude north. It is found also in the region of 
Bata (West Central Sea Coast) and commonly in the region of 
Kotto along the banks of the Oubanqui river, at an altitude of 
500 M. to 800 M. 

C. excelsa A. Chev. is never found in flooded areas. It is admir- 
ably adapted to the arid regions of the Sudan. It has recently 
been introduced into the Trinidad Botanic Gardens, and is reported 
to be of considerable value. The plots of C. excelsa A. Chev. w^hich 
were planted at Kampala, Uganda, in 1915 and 1916, have not, 
however, yielded as well as C. arabica L. and C. robusta Linden. 
In March, 1922, the beans of C. excelsa A. Chev. were valued at 
only about forty-seven shillings per cwt. on the London market. 
Its seeds produce an agreeably flavored beverage. 

Use: — It is cultivated commercially for use as a filler and as a 
substitute for the seeds of C. arabica L. 

Bibliography: — A. Chev. in Rev. Cult. Col. 12 (1903) 258; in Compt. 
Rend. Acad. Sci. Par. No. 8, 140 (1905) 517-520. 

Economic and Cultural References: — Freeman & Chandler World's 
Comm. Prod. (1907) 181. — Hare, Caspari, & Rusby Nat. Stand. Dis- 
pens. ed. 2 (1908) 341. — Hartwich Die Menschlich. Genuszm. (191 1) 
274, 825. — Wehmer Pflanzenstoffe (1911) 734. — Perrot Travaux Lab. 
Mat. Med. Ecole Super, de Pharm. de Paris pt. 5, 10 (1913-1916) No. 3, 
pg. 10; Les Grand. Prod. Veget. Col. Frang. (1915) 421-437. — Editor 
in Bull. Imp. Inst. 20 (1922) No. 3, pg. 295. 







05) 



^^u'lt 






f I i Hi] i miTTti] m !'H trrnTri|TT!T|Ti i qimrrnTTmrrmTiTmTnTnimrniTrrpTT^^ 

|UETRic"srsTeM2' 31 4! 51 el tl 91 * m m m m h tW i»j 

I 

PLATE 38: COFFEA JENKINS II HOOK. F. 



96 



CHAPTER IV 

Genus COFFEA L.: Section II: LACHNOSTOMA Hook. f. 

Coffea Jenkinsii Hook. f. 
Coffea ligustroides S. Moore. 
Coffea khasiana Hook. f. 

Coffea Jenkinsii Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 3 (1882) 155. 
A glabrous shrub. Leaves 1.2 cm. to 4.0 cm. wide by 7 cm. 
to 14 cm. long, elliptic-lanceolate to caudate-acuminate, base acutely 
narrowed, apex attenuated, apex 1.5 cm. long; petiole 0.5 cm. long; 
lamina broadest at the middle or below; 5 to 6 paired veins of the 
first rank; stipules 0.4 cm. long. Flowers axillary; corolla-tube 
longer than the lobes, mouth glabrous, lobes acute, 4 in number; 
calyx quadridentate. Fruit ellipsoid, i cm. long by 0.5 cm. broad. 
Diagnostic Characters of the Species: — Closely allied to C. khasi- 
ana Hook f. but C. Jenkinsii Hook. f. is almost entirely glabrous, 
only the younger shoots being puberulous. Leaves narrower, with 
fewer prominent veins. Flowers larger. Fruit and seeds different, 
— the seeds of C. Jenkinsii Hook. f. being 0.83 cm. long, ellipsoidal 
in form. This species resembles, in habit, the non-economic species 
C. salicifolia Miq. of Java. 

Geographical Distribution: — Himalaya Region; Khasia Mts. (Alt. 
900 M. to 1200 M., Jenkins, Griffith — Kew Distrib. No. 3015); 
East Bengal. 

History : — This species was collected by Jenkins and Griffith about 
1880. Although its seeds are of a fair quality, it has not been ex- 
tended beyond local cultivation. 

Use : — Mainly as a substitute for the seeds of C. arabtca L. 

Bibliography: — Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 3 (1882) 155. — Froehner in 
Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 25 (1898) 255, 276. — Lecomte Le Cafe (1899) 40. — 
Valeton in Bull. Inst. Bot. Buitenz. 7 (1901) 7, 26, 32. 

Economic and Cultural References : — Sebire Les PL Util. Senegal 
(1899) 179. — Gamble Man, Ind. Timbers ed. 2 (1922) 422. 

97 




Coit^ea Je.TiKinsit HooK.^. 



l£.^i.-'^'i-x^-^<-' 



li*./ l)r. Xhfjt (Mimbtr. 



PLATE 39: COFFEA JENKINSII HOOK. F. 



98 




PLATE 40: COFFEA JENKINSII HOOK. F. 



99 



100 COFFEE 

Cojfea liffustroides S. Moore in Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 40 (1911) 

94. 

A glabrous shrub with the younger branches somewhat resinous, 
slender, not greatly crowded at first but later becoming close and 
rounded out by the foliage. Leaves oblong-lanceolate; apex gen- 
erally obtuse but frequently cuspidate; petiole short; lamina thinly 
coriaceous; secondary veins on both surfaces forming about 8 small, 
spreading arches; stipules wide at the base, gradually diminishing 
into a long, pointed apex. Flowers solitary, axillary; pedicel dis- 
tinctly longer than the ovary; calyculus double, margin lobed or 
slightly truncate; corolla 4-partite; tube funnel-form; lobes ovate- 
oblong, obtuse, very little longer than the tube; calyx-limb poorly 
developed. Stamens 4; filaments short; anthers exserted, linear- 
oblong, obtuse. Style exserted; arms linear. Ovary narrowly 
ovoid; ovules affixed to the center of the septum. Fruit oblong, 
without sap, usually i -seeded. Perennial shrub, flowering in De- 
cember; fruiting in July. 

Diagnostic Characters of the Species: — Leaf-lamina possesses many 
minute, pellucid glands; 5 cm. to 7 cm. long by 1.5 cm. to 2 cm. 
wide, dark olive color above when dry, green below; veins quite 
distinct above, somewhat less prominent below; stipules about 4 mm. 
to 5 mm. long. Pedicel 4 mm. long. Flowers white. Ovary 1.5 
mm. long. Corolla-tube 5 mm. long; throat 3 mm. in diameter; 
lobes 6 mm. long; 4 in number. Anthers 4 mm. long; filaments 
rather thick. Style 7 mm. long, arms capitulate, 2 mm. long. Fruit 
yellowish, about i cm. long by 7 mm. broad; seeds 7.5 mm. long, 
oblong. The tetramerous flowers and the small leaves assist in dis- 
tinguishing this species from any closely allied, economic form. 

Common Name: — Chirinda Coffee. 

Geographical Distribution: — Chipete Forest Patch in Gazaland, 
Africa. Altitude 11 40 M. 

History: — This comparatively new species of economic Cojfea 
was first adequately described and published in the Journal of the 
Linnaean Society, Bot. 40 (191 1) 94. It had, however, been col- 
lected previously, at least as early as 1905; for the specimen which 
I have studied was collected by Mr. C. F. M. Swynnerton in 
December of that year. His specimen No. 67, was kindly loaned 



Coi^^e-a: 1> Id ustroL<ieS S.\ 



lAoofS. 




Waave.;^ 



PLATE 41: COFFEA LIGUSTROIDES S. MOORE 



lOI 




(i 34 5 809 I 



C 



■ff' 



Li.aus LrotiLe.: 



Smoore GAZALAND. 

c. r. m. swymiERToji. laoi." 

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CHIPET 



e FORrCT-PATCH,. 3SO0 



Ml. 






PLATE 42: COFFEA LIGUSTROIDES S. MOORE 



102 



LACHNOSTOMA HOOK. F. 103 

to me by the U. S. Nat. Herb., Smithsonian Institution, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

C. Ugustroides S. Moore is the plant which yields the so-called 
Chirinda coffee. It forms the main undergrowth of the Chipete 
Forest Patch. The crop is always small, although heavier in alter- 
nate years. The dense shade under which most of it grows is 
prejudicial to heavy cropping. The fruits are commonly eaten by the 
forest bulbuls and robins as well as by the baboons and the natives. 
This coffee is much used, and it is considered to be excellent by the 
natives of Gazaland. 

Use: — The seeds are used as a substitute for the seeds of C, 
arabica L. 

Bibliography: — S. Moore in Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 40 (191 1) 94. 

Coffea khasiana Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 3 (1882) 154. 

A rambling shrub or small tree with gray, somewhat transversely 
fissured bark. Branches and leaf-veins on the lower surface are 
puberulous; younger branches bear appressed hairs. Leaves 7.5 cm. 
to 20 cm. long by 2.5 cm. to 7.5 cm. wide, elliptic-lanceolate, caudate- 
acuminate; 7 to 8 paired lateral veins given off at a very oblique 
angle from the midrib, sometimes with abundant short hairs on 
the under surface; greenish when dry; apex attenuated, 1.5 cm. to 
3.0 cm. long; lamina dull, membranaceous; petiole short, 0.62 cm. 
long; stipules triangular, broad at the base, apex attenuated, making 
the total length of the stipule about i cm.. Flowers In very shortly- 
branjhed, pubescent cymes; pedicel exceedingly short with a cup 
of connate bracteoles; corolla 0.7 cm. long, yellowish; tube cylin- 
drical, 0.4 cm. long; mouth villous; lobes acute, ovate, commonly 
shorter than the tube; calyx quadridentate, lobes acute, glabrous, 
teeth erect; calyculus 0.25 cm. long, and extending beyond the 0.5 
mm. high, quadridentate margin of the calyx. Style short; arms 
linear. Anthers 0.15 cm. long, projecting beyond the corolla-tube. 
The 1.2 mm. long stigmatic processes of the 0.5 cm. long style, project 
beyond the corolla-tube. Fruit-pedicel short; globose In form, 
smooth, longer than wide, about i cm. long by 0.6 cm. wide, with 
hairy, persistent calyx-teeth. Seeds orbicular, ventrally plane or 
rarely concave. 

Diagnostic Characters of the Species: — Mouth of the corolla-tube 



Oo-^^eia. KHtiSiawa HooKer 



tt 



f 



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f(!jff!TpimT!TrjrffrTrfrrj5T!Tpnrjrf^^ 



ifiHlnihfifmfiuSinfnihiffMih 



iniiitHnfiH 



MnnffniliffJimHihiifmlffn 



PLATE 43: COFFEA KH ASIAN A HOOK. F. 



TOd 



LACHNOSTOMA HOOK. F. 105 

exceedingly villose. Leaves with a long, tail-like tip. Seeds plano- 
convex whereas the seeds of the other economic species under the 
Section Lachnostomdj have ellipsoidal seeds as in the case of C. 
Jenkinsii Hook, f . ; or oblong seeds as in the case of C. ligustroides 
S. Moore. 

Synonymy: — Lachnostoma khasiana Korth. in Ned. Kruidk. Arch. 
2 (1851) 202; in Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 2 (1856-59) 257. 

Geographical Distribution: — Himalaya region; Mysore; Khasia 
and Jyntea Mts. 

History: — Coffea khasiana Hook. f. was first noted about 1871 
as indigenous in the Khasia Mts. at an altitude of over 600 M. 
It was observed several times by C. B. Clarke at an altitude of 
1350 M. The description of this plant as C. khasiana Hook. f. ap- 
peared in 1882, and was based largely on Herb. Ind. Or. Hook. 
f. & T. Nob. specimen No. 6. 

It is closely allied to Coffea densiflora Blume of Java and Sumatra. 
It is gathered by the natives, but has never become a widely culti- 
vated species. 

Use: — As a substitute for the seeds of C. arabica L. 

Bibliography: — Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 3 (1882) 154-155. — Froehner 
in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 25 (1898) 255, 276. — Lecomte Le Cafe (1899) 40. 
— Valeton in Bull. Inst. Bot. Buitenz. 7 (1901) 7, 8, 11, 13, 26, 27, 
30, 31. _ 

Economic and Cultural References: — Sebire Les PI. Util. Senegal 
(1899) 179. — Gamble Man. Ind. Timbers ed. 2 (1922) 422. 



PART II 
ECONOMIC DISCUSSION OF COFFEE 



CHAPTER V 

INTRODUCTION TO ECONOMIC DISCUSSION OF 

COFFEE 

§ a. INDIGENOUS GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION 
OF THE ECONOMIC SPECIES OF THE GENUS: 
COFFEA 

Africa : 

West Coast: — Sudan — Coffea excelsa Chev. 

This species is also indigenous in Central Africa. 
Sierra Leone — Coffea stenophylla G. Don. 

Coffea lib erica Bull. 
Liberia — Coffea liberica Bull. 
Calabar — Coffea liberica Bull. 
Congo and Gabon — Coffea canephora Pierre. 

Coffea conffensis Froehner. 

Coffea robusta Linden. 
Gazaland — Coffea liffustroides S. Moore. 
East Coast: — Abyssinia — Coffea arabica L. 
Mozambique — Coffea Zanguebaria Lour. 

Coffea racemosa Lour. 

Coffea Ibo Froehner. 
Mauritius; Bourbon; Madagascar — Coffea mauritiana Lam. 
Portuguese East Africa — Coffea Swynnertonii S. Moore. 

Asia (all in mountainous areas) : 

Himalaya (850 M.) ; Java; Sumatra — Coffea bengalensis Heyne 

ex Roem. & Schult. 
Travancore: Ceylon (iioo M.) — Coffea Wightiana Wall. 
Coffea travancorensis Wight & Arn. 

109 



ECONOMIC DISCUSSION: INTRODUCTION iii 

Bengal — Coffea benffalensis Heyne ex Roem. & Schult. 

Coffea Jenkinsii Hook. f. 

Cojfea khasiana Hook. f. 
East India — Cojfea fragrans Wall, ex Hook. f. 

§ b. THE PRINCIPAL COFFEE-GROWING COUNTRIES 
AND EXPLANATION OF TERMS USED IN COMMER- 
CIAL CLASSIFICATION 

Brazil: — Rio, Santos, Bourbon Santos. 

Rio coffees are lowland and strong varieties, r Most Santos coffees 
are highland, mild and much better flavor. 

Rio coffees — Beans vary in size; color dark green to light yellow; 
heavy body; distinctly characteristic flavor and aroma. 

Santos coffees — Beans vary in size; color green and rich yellow 
to pale yellow; excellent quality and milder than Rio; substituted 
widely for Java. 

Bourbon Santos — Beans small; acid or vinous; formerly sold as 
"Mocha" seed. 

Red Bean Santos — From Campinas district; richer than other 
Santos. 

Other minor types of Brazilian coffee are Victoria or Capotinea, 
Bahia, and Liberian Rio. 

< There are eight distinct grades of Rio coffee recognized in trade.' 
Examination of these type grades in the collection of Economic 
Plant Products at the Bussey Institution for Applied Biology of 
Harvard University shows clearly grades two to eight inclusive, 
grade one being ideal and non-existent. Santos coffees are exported 
from Santos, and are the best Brazilian coffees. They make up the 
bulk of the commercial coffee. 

Colombia: — Bucaramanga, Bogota, "Savanilla." 
Bucaramanga coffee^ — Beans large, solid; liquor full, fragrant 
aroma. One of the finest of American coffees. 

Bogota coffee — Beans large, uniform ; color bluish green ; liquor 
full-bodied, round, fragrant. This coffee forms the basis of numer- 
ous high-grade blends. 

"Savanilla" coffee is merely a general term used commercially for 
all Colombian coffees. 



112 COFFEE 

Ecuador : — Guayaquil. 

Guayaquil is the name of the port, and is the term used to desig- 
nate all Ecuadorian coffees. They are of a good grade. 

Bolivia : — Yungas. 

Yungas coffee of Bolivia is excellent in appearance and quality 
and rivals Mocha. Other districts producing coffee are Caupalican, 
Espiritu Santo, and Valle Grande. 

Peru: — Carabaya, Huanuco, Choquisongo, Chanchamayo. 

Peruvian coffees are of a very good grade and quality and are 
known by the district name in which they are grown. 

Venezuela: — Maracaibo, La Guayra. 

Maracaibo coffees are graded, when washed, into several varieties 
known as Cucuta, Merida, Bocono, Tovar, San Cristobal, and Tru- 
jillo (the least desirable). The first two named are excellent 
coffees; beans large, round, solid; color rich yellow; liquor choice. 

La Guayras are likewise separated into types known as Caracas, 
Porto-Cabello, and Coro: 

Washed Caracas — Beans large; color bluish; excellent grade. 

Milled Caracas — Beans medium ; color yellowish. 

Porto-Cabello and Coro — Beans small to medium; color dark to 
light green. 

Minor Venezuelan types are Carupano and Angostura. 

Central America: — Guatemala, Costa Rica, Salvador. 

I have listed these types in the order of their excellence: 

Guatemala — "Coban" is the best grade, — beans large, shapely; 
color blue. 

Costa Rica — Beans large, handsome. 

Salvador — Beans medium, well developed, heavy; color greyish 
yellow. The principle production of El Salvador is coffee. Three 
classes are recognized according to the following terms: 

1. Cojulpeque — grown in a very temperate climate; moist soil; 
quality excellent. 

2. Ahuachapam — grown in a moderately warm climate; quality 
very good. 



ECONOMIC DISCUSSION: INTRODUCTION 113 

3. Sonsonate — grown In a moderately warm climate; quality 
superior. 

Minor Central American types are Nicaragua, Honduras, and 
Panama. 

Mexico : — Tepic, Caracolillo. 

Tepic (Mexican Mocha) — Beans small, hard; color steel-blue; 
h'quor creamy, aromatic. 

Caracolillo (Mexican Pea-berry) — Beans round. The pea-berry 
form of coffee. 

Minor Mexican coffees are: 

Oaxaca (pronounced Wah-har-kar) — Beans large, well developed; 
color blue, whitish when aged. 

Cordoba or Mexican Jack — Beans large ; color yellow. 

Coatepec coffee — Beans large, well developed ; more acid than the 
preceding types. 

Colima — Beans medium, flat, fairly well developed. 

A very minor coffee is grown in Tuxpan and is used only locally. 

Coffee raising is one of the most profitable industries in Mexico; 
and, because of its proximity, the United States consumes the greater 
part of Mexican coffee exports. Nearly all of the American com- 
panies located in Mexico ship their coffee to St. Louis, Missouri, 
where it is roasted, ground, and stored for sale. In 1900, Mexico 
produced 88,000,000 pounds; and, in 1910, the United States alone 
imported over 35,000,000 pounds from Mexico. 

Java and other Dutch East Indian Islands. 

Java coffee has developed as a term for all East Indian coffees. 
Sometimes East Indian coffees, other than those grown on Java 
itself, are known by the trade name of Padang, Mandheling, Corin- 
chie, Timor, Kroe, etc., according to the district in which they grew. 
Washed East Indian coffees are referred to as Blue Bean Java. 
Coffea liberica Bull shrubs, grown In the East Indies, produce the 
so-called Liberlan-Java. The best Java Is a very excellent coffee. 
Most of the Java coffee consumed in the United States Is Imported 
from Sumatra, while most of the Celebean products go to Europe, 
Fresh Indian coffees are all light sea-green or blue-green. They 
change color during transportation and with age; and are graded 



114 COFFEE 

commercially into brown, yellow, and pale grades, the first bringing 
the highest prices. This gradation, however, is not efficient; for 
some light beans furnish a more pleasing liquor than many dark 
types. 

Ceylon and India. 

Ceylon Types; 

1. Native — grown in lowlands; beans large, flat, whitish; quality 
poor. 

2. Plantation — carefully cultivated; beans large, well-developed, 
regular in size; color light bluish or green tint; quality good. 

3. Liberian-Ceylon — a hybrid of Cojfea liberica Bull; beans 
smaller and paler then true Cojfea liberica Bull; liquid milder but 
pleasant. 

4. Ceylon-Mocha — obtained by separation from the plantation 
type; beans small, very even, and uniform. It resembles genuine 
Mocha in appearance and flavor. 

Indian Types: 

1. Malabar — Beans small, hard; quality excellent. 

2. Mysore — Beans large; color bluish-green; liquor rich, strong. 

Arabia: — "Mocha," Tehama, Harrar. 

Mocha is merely an exporting town surrounded by deserts, and 
is not a coffee-growing area. It is not so important to-day from 
the standpoint of a shipping port, as Aden and Hodeidah. The 
United States receives its Mocha coffee from Aden. The best 
Arabian and true Mocha coffee is grown in the province of Yemen. 
The beans are small, hard, round, regular in size; color olive-green 
when fresh and a rich semi-transparent yellow when aged; odor, 
when freshly roasted, is characteristic; quality is the best; liquor 
creamy, rich, heavy, a trifle acid, extremely aromatic and fragrant. 
Most Mocha coffee is still raised and prepared under primitive 
conditions and hence, as it appears on our market, it is no better 
than the best Brazilian Santos. Tehama Arabian coffee is greatly 
inferior to Yemen Mocha. Harrar coffee is an Abyssinian coffee. 
The beans are of the same color as true Mocha, but are longer, more 
pointed ; and the odor is rank and leathery. It is shipped from Aden 
as Long-berried Mocha. 




"5 



ii6 COFFEE 

West Indian Islands. 

Martinique — Beans long, flat, rather thick, covered by whitish or 
silvery pellicle; color green; stronger than Mocha but the aroma is 
less agreeable. 

Jamaica Coffee (Blue Mountain Coffee) — Beans flat, medium; 
color bluish ; liquor excellent. 'Tlain-grown" Jamaica coffee is much 
inferior. The beans are large, flat, hully; color whitish; liquor 
strong, grassy in flavor. 

Dominica — Beans large, thick, flat; color dark green to white; 
extremities of beans are pointed; quality varies from inferior to 
very good. 

Haitian and San Domingo — Beans large, flat, whitish; liquor 
mild, pleasant. 

Guadeloupe — Beans glossy, hard, long, clean; even green color 
to greyish; quality good. 

Cuban — Best grades from Guantanamo, Alquizar, and San Marcos 
districts; and the Sierra Maestra plantations. Beans large, whitish, 
rounded on the normally flat side; liquor pleasant. 

Porto Rico — Beans regular, well-formed; color yellow to green- 
ish; liquor of good flavor. 

Barbados — Beans nearly round in shape; quality similar to Haitian 
type. 

Philippine Islands. 

Luzon Type^ — Beans small, hard; liquor rich and of good flavor. 

Manila Type^ — Beans medium, regular in shape; color pale green; 
liquor fine, aromatic. Its sources are the districts of Cavite, Batangas, 
and La Laguna. 

Zamboango Type — Beans large, flabby; color yellowish; liquor 
weak, coarse, poorest of all the Philippine Types. 

Hawaiian Islands. 

Hawaiian coffee is the general term applied to the product of any 
of the islands which produce coffee such as Mani, Kauai, and 
Hawaii. The beans are medium in size, possess a pleasing aroma, 
and have a mild, delicate flavor. 





Chart. CuTTe showing Coff«« 
1910—1920 


ConatunptioD of tha World. 

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922 



PLATE 47: COFFEE CONSUMPTION CURVE 



117 



ii8 ^ COFFEE 

Australia. 

Australian coffee-beans are large; color greenish, aroma agreeable; 
and possess a good flavor. 

Minor Coffee-producing Areas. 

Under this head, one may include Western Africa; the Island 
of Reunion (Bourbon) ; British Guiana, which produces "Demaerara" 
coffee; French Guiana, which produces "Cayenne" coffee; Dutch 
Guiana, which produces "Surinam" coffee; Birmania; Liberia; 
Fiji Islands; New Guinea; and Samoa. 

§ c. COFFEE PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION 

Not only is coffee the favorite beverage of many millions of people ; 
but fhe annual production and consumption of nearly 3,000,000,000 
pounds of coffee-beans has made it one of the primary economic 
products of the world. ) In certain countries such as El Salvador and 
Brazil, coffee is the chief cropj The success or failure of the coffee- 
crop vitally affects the economic condition of all coffee-growing 
countries. 

I have briefly summarized by means of the following tables, 
graphs, and maps, the production of cofFee by countries, the im- 
portation, the consumption, and other statistical data regarding 
coffee. Subsequent figures clearly outline the economic development 
of coffee during the last twenty-five years. 

Annual Coffee Production in Kilogrammes. 

The figures listed below for the year 1900 are compiled from mis- 
cellaneous sources and are approximate only: 

Year: — 1900. 

Mexico 40,000,000 Kilogrammes. 

Costa Rica 16,215,000 " 

El Salvador 27,280,000 " 

Guatemala 52,000,000 " (Year 1894) 

Honduras 909,000 " (Year 1891) 

Nicaragua 9,000,000 " 

Bolivia 682,000 " 

Brazil 655,620,000 " 

Colombia ? 



CHARTS Comparison ShipmsDt Curves of Santos Coff»« to th« 

United States and iurope for th& Twenty-fire Year Period 



Seasons ; 



t 

flfl 



"VaCOUOOBaM 



1896-1897----1920-19E1 incluaiTe. 



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PLATE 48: COMPARISON SHIPMENT CURVES FOR SANTOS 
COFFEE TO THE UNITED STATES AND EUROPE 



119 



120 COFFEE 

Year: 1900. — Continued 

Ecuador 2,273,000 Kilogrammes. (Year 1893) 

Peru ? 

Venezuela 48,000,000 

Cuba 7,800,000 

Porto Rico 27,273,000 

Dutch Guiana 361,000 

Arabia 909,000 

Africa 318,000 

British India 320,000 

Ceylon 636,000 

Java & Sumatra 53,636,000 

Borneo 35,360,000 

Hawaiian Islands 155,000 

The foregoing table indicates that the world's total coffee-pro- 
duction for the year 1900 was approximately between 950,000,000 
and 1,000,000,000 kilogrammes, or from 2,000,000,000 to 
2,200,000,000 pounds. 



World's Production of Coffee for the Season 
July i, 191 7 — June 30, igi'S. 

The figures listed below are in accordance with the estimates 
of Messrs. G. Duuring & Zoon, Kolff & Witkamp, Leonard Jacob- 
son & Zonen, Brokers, of Rotterdam. 

Quantities in 

Bags of 60 

Type. Kilos, each. 

Rio Coffee 2,952,000 

Santos Coffee 12,143,000 

Bahia and Victoria 850,000 

Mexico, Costa Rica, Guatemala, New Granada, and Cen- 
tral America i ,600,000 

Laguayra, P. Cabello, Maracaibo 1,500,000 

Cuba, Porto Rico, and British West Ind 175,000 

Hayti 300,000 

Java (Government and Private) 800,000 

Padang 300,000 

Menado, Macassar, Timor, etc 50,000 

British East Indies and Manila 170,000 

Africa, Moka, etc 130,000 

Total 20,970,000 



CHART/ Cotoparlson Shliaaent CurTea of Rio Coff«* to tlw 

United States and Ewope for the Tronty-fiTt Twor Period, 
Seaeons: 1896-1897 1980-1981 inolasiTt, 



to«,oo« 



« sm4^ Uk-n»t » \i, 







R.Cheney 19 2*-, 



PLATE 49: COMPARISON SHIPMENT CURVES FOR RIO 
COFFEE TO THE UNITED STATES AND EUROPE 



121 




122 



ECONOMIC DISCUSSION: INTRODUCTION 123 

These figures indicate that the present annual World Production 
of coffee is between 1,250,000,000 and 1,300,000,000 kilogrammes 
or from 2,750,000,000 to 3,000,000,000 pounds. 

Chief Coffee Importation Ports. 

The principal European markets are England, Havre, Hamburg, 
Bremen, Holland, Trieste, Antwerp, Copenhagen, Bordeaux, and 
Marseilles. 

The principal markets of the United States are New Orleans, 
Baltimore, and New York City. Although Boston has large whole- 
sale distributing houses, seventy-five per cent of the coffee handled 
is obtained from New York. 



CHAPTER VI 
PREPARATION OF THE COFFEE-BEAN 

The coffee-bean, as one obtains it from the retail merchant, is the 
coffee-seed after it has been removed from its pulp and parchment 
coverings. It has been dried and usually roasted. The processes 
to which the beans are subjected are exceedingly important, as they 
affect the aroma and flavor of the beverage. 

I have outlined the treatment which is applied in the chief coffee- 
growing areas and by the wholesale coffee-houses of the importing 
countries : 

§a. PLANTATION TREATMENT 

( 1 ) Arabia : — In this region, the coffee-trees produce their prin- 
cipal crop in May. The ripe berries are shaken from the trees and 
fall upon cotton cloths which are spread over the ground. The 
fruit is spread out on a matting to dry the berries intact, as the 
Arabians, unlike the inhabitants of other coffee-producing countries, 
prepare a tea-like infusion from the pulp. The dried berries are 
passed under heavy wooden or stone cylinders which break the pulps 
and separate the beans. The process of winnowing follows, after 
which they are placed in the sun to dry; or they are placed in the 
shade and dried by air, and the hulling-process is delayed for a period 
of eighteen months. Subsequent to hulling, the beans are ready to 
use or ship. 

(2) West Indies, Mexico, Central America, and parts of Brazil: — 
The fruit is picked one by one by hand several times a year, or a 
branch is held down with one hand while the berries are stripped 
off with the other. This method results in the removal of many 
leaves and stems which become mixed with the fruit. Men and 
women, both Whites and Indians, are employed to gather the crop. 
The laborer carries his full wicker basket to the mill. The berries 

124 



PREPARATION OF THE COFFEE-BEAN 125 

v^re usually sun-dried for several days, by being spread out over a 
mortar-covered and inclined area, in order that the pulp and the 
outer covering of the beans may separate. The berries are spread 
out in a thin layer (six to eight inches thick) in order to prevent 
fermentation w^hich sours and injures their flavor. Uniform drying 
is accomplished by a frequent stirring of the berries. The beans are 
gathered w^ith a long wooden implement in the form of a broad 
plank bearing a handle about one and one-half metres long. This 
plank is scraped over the drying-pavement or court. In this manner, 
it drags off the beans. The coffee is ready to be removed from 
the drying-courts w^hen the parchment of the bean has changed from 
its slippery condition to a brittle state. This drying-process requires 
a v\reek in fine v^^eather and two weeks or more if the weather is 
wet or devoid of sunshine. Tropical dews are exceedingly heavy; 
and hence the bean-covered drying-courts are covered with mattings 
during the night. This sun-drying process results in a good product, 
but it is a very delicate process, since the color and quality of the 
bean depend largely on its duration and method. This procedure 
is not so advantageous as a drying-machine because a drying-ground 
is expensive, owing to the greater amount of labor required. More- 
over, a drying-court desiccates less coffee in a given period and not 
so well as a drying-machine. Ordinarily, in the West Indies, a 
mill is used to remove the pulp while fresh. In many American 
plantations, the fresh berries are placed at once in large tanks of 
water in which they ferment and the pulp is separated from the 
beans which are then cleaned by machinery and dried for three to 
four days by spreading out in a thin layer over a stone court where 
they are stirred occasionally to accelerate the desiccation. Drying 
by means of the sun's rays is done prior to the parchment removal. 
The coffee is then stored until perfectly dry, at which time the beans 
are spread out over brick-paved courts and exposed again to the sun's 
rays for two to three days. When the coffee-beans are sufficiently 
dry to be difficult to break with the teeth they are crushed (hulled) 
by a man, mule, horse, or water-driven mill. The beans are then 
transferred to a winnowing-mill which, in the West Indies, con- 
sists merely of four pieces of tin on a rapidly revolving axle. The 
resulting production of wind fans away all of the pellicles and other 
debris from the coffee. The beans are then placed upon tables and 



126 COFFEE 

sorted out by hand into uniform sizes. The coffee is exposed for 
a third time to the sun or to stove heat; and, when totally dry, it is 
packed in bags or barrels and stored in a dry and covered place. 

(3) Modern Methods in Brazil and Large Production Areas of 
the East: — Freshly picked fruit is separated from its pulp by a 
pulping-machine. Such machines are of diverse types; and their 
pulping-ability varies from trwenty bushels per hour by means of 
small hand pulpers to one hundred and fifty bushels by w^ater or 
steam power. Pulping is done at once, or at least within half a 
day after picking, in order to avoid the injurious fermentation of 
the pulp which has a deleterious effect on the beans. 

The resulting parchment-covered beans are slimy and require 
washing. The moist pulped beans are left in a pile for four to 
six hours in order to induce slight fermentation which facilitates 
the removal of the glutinous substance covering the parchment. The 
beans are placed in a tank of water which is stirred by two work- 
men by means of long-handled shovels. The water passes through 
freely, and the beans are passed on to a second and third tank 
where they undergo the same treatment and are not removed from 
the last one until well cleansed. Modern washing-machines are 
now largely used. These machines can handle one hundred and 
fifty quintals per hour, and require only one tank. 

The product of this process is dried before being subjected to the 
harrowing-machine which removes the parchment. Desiccation is 
accomplished by the use of a stove or drying-machine. The cen- 
trifugal type of drying-apparatus does not completely dry the coffee, 
and is used only in combination with drying-grounds. The common 
type oi drier consists of a cylinder, a stove, and a ventilator. The 
four compartments of the cylinder are filled alternately with equal 
quantities of coffee to obtain better balance and facility of rotation. 
The cylinder is filled through small inlets. When filled, the cylinder 
is put in motion and the ventilator and the stove are lighted simul- 
taneously. The important thing for the manipulator to do is to 
watch the thermometer to ascertain that the heat does not exceed 
66° C. The hot air, entering the cylinder, is divided into thirty- 
four thousand small currents, which gives the cylinder a great 
velocity and disperses the moisture more rapidly. The cylinder 
rotates twice per minute. The ventilator throws a great current 



PREPARATION OF THE COFFEE-BEAN 127 

of air through the heated tubes which give it the required tem- 
perature. Some drying-machines release seventy per cent of the 
moisture from tin baskets containing two hundred and fifty pounds 
of coffee in twenty minutes. These efficient machines have the 
basket of coffee secured about the shaft near the pulleys which rotate 
at a minimum velocity of seven hundred revolutions per minute. 
The beans are removed from the basket at the bottom. Well-dried 
coffee may be stored in the parchment if desired. To remove the 
parchment, the beans are passed through a shelling-machine which con- 
sists of a metal, grooved cylinder which rotates within an adjustable, 
metal and grooved covering. The beans, passing between the cylin- 
der walls and the surface-covering, are rid of their parchments by 
friction. The process is a rapid one. The beans are then polished 
and sized. Separating machines readily manipulate one thousand 
pounds a day. The beans are then packed in bags containing sixty 
kilogrammes each, which are labelled according to the grade and 
are stored in dry, well-ventilated, and non-odorous warehouses, as 
coffee is readily impregnated with foreign odors. 

Sometimes coffee is prepared from the dry state of the berries, in 
which case the dried pulp and parchment are removed at the same 
time and sizing follows immediately. This dry method operation 
is easier, but the product deteriorates in quality and price because 
the fermentation, which occurs when the berries are dried in the 
sun, affects their flavor. Moreover, the hulling-machine breaks and 
scratches the bean when submitted to this process in the dry state. 
In spite of an inferior product, this is the method used by small 
and primitive planters. In the dry process, no washing or pulping 
is necessary. The entire fruit is dried on prepared courts as ordi- 
nary parchment coffee. Desiccating layers are only two to three centi- 
meters thick. The winnowing-process is longer; but otherwise the 
process is precisely as the outline indicated above for the Wet 
Manipulation of coffee. 

§b. TREATMENT BY WHOLESALE DISTRIBUTORS 

( I ) United States : — Raw coffee, as received in large bags by the 
wholesale distributors, is shovelled into a separating-machine. The 
perforated shelves of the separator are submitted to constant agita- 
tion which results in the division of the coffee-beans into uniform 



128 COFFEE 

sizes. As the beans are transferred by suction to a milling-machine, 
the stones and other debris drop out into a waste-container. The 
process of milling removes the silver skin and w^hatever parchment 
may have escaped extraction during the plantation treatment. Blend- 
ing is now accomplished by weight, a method which insures uni- 
formity. The blended coffee is then roasted in perforated cylinders 
which revolve continuously over a furnace fire which maintains a 
moderate and constant temperature in order to preserve the aroma 
of the coffee. Excessive heat is avoided as it would decompose the 
acid, the gum, and the resinous contents. 

The leading coffee-houses in the United States roast in quantities 
of two hundred and ten to two hundred and sixty pounds per cylinder 
at a time. The best results favor the lower quantity. The period 
of roasting varies somewhat; but the customary time ranges from 
twenty to thirty minutes according to the dryness of the raw beans. 
The experienced roasters are able to recognize the critical point by 
the color of the beans which in general is more reddish than brown 
and never black, and by the aroma emitted. When the beans are 
sufficiently roasted, the cylinder is immediately emptied, and the 
steaming beans pass into a shallow truck which is air-cooled from 
below. The beans are shovelled about until they cease to steam, and 
are then allowed to cool without agitation. The sudden contact of 
the coffee with the air from above and below causes the cessation of 
the evaporation process and the consequent concentration of the vola- 
tile oil in the beans. When cooled, the coffee-beans are packed whole, 
or are ground and placed in bags or tins, in which form they reach 
the consumer. 

It is desirable to roast American and West Indian coffees separately 
from Mocha coffee if they are to be blended, as Mocha coffee requires 
less roasting. Over-roasting causes it to lose its volatile properties. 
It has reached its critical stage when it becomes a brown, cinnamon 
color, while American and West Indian coffees, in which dampness 
predominates over the oily principle, must be roasted until a chestnut 
brown hue is attained. 

Regardless of the care practiced by the commercial houses in her- 
metically sealing their retail containers, ground coffees always lose a 
considerable part of their aromatic strength and usually in direct 



PREPARATION OF THE COFFEE-BEAN 129 

proportion to the length of time they have been ground. Raw coffees, 
however, improve with age if stored in a dry place. 

(2) Europe: — Ordinarily the treatment is similar to the method 
practiced in this country. I may add that, in India and sometimes 
in Europe, a quantity of lard is placed in the roaster to cover the 
surfaces of the beans with a slight coating which prevents the evapora- 
tion of the essential oil. Another practice consists in sprinkling 
sugar over the coffee when taken from the roaster. It is unquestion- 
ably preferable, however, not to utilize either of these means. 



CHAPTER VII 

COMMERCIAL SOPHISTICATION AND 
SUBSTITUTION 

Throughout the history of commercial production, the coffee-bean 
has been subjected to adulteration and 'doctoring' In the raw, roasted, 
and ground form. Until the recent legislation and enforcement of 
the Pure Food Laws, the coffee-business In the United States Involved 
much fraud. Although there is much less manipulation than pre- 
viously practised, the coffee-business Is far from being free from this 
evil. Excessive adulteration and substitution still exist In Europe. 
Subsequent discussion will Indicate clearly the extent of past and 
present sophistication In Europe and In this country. 

The adulteration of coffee Is accomplished at various times during 
its preparation for retail trade. The producer mixes old and inferior 
beans with new and better ones. The export manipulator to com- 
plete orders often adds beans of different grades, growths, and 
varieties. The wholesale merchant in both the producing and 
consuming countries adds small African and Indian beans and con- 
siderable quantities of Liberlan and Robusta coffees to Arabian 
coffee. I have found that Liberlan and Robusta coffees, which are 
much less desirable as regards the quality of the resulting infusion 
In respect to aroma and flavor, are widely used as fillers. Fair 
grade beans are sorted out to obtain a uniform size and sold as 
Mocha and Java; and of course, to demand the highest price. The 
Pure Food Laws have helped to discourage this deception in the 
United States. Coffee which has suffered from dampness or damage 
from sea water during transportation is sometimes picked over, 
washed, decolorized with lime water, washed again, dried rapidly, 
colored by slight roasting, and dyed with nitric acid or by use of 
cosmetics. The production of coffee to suit the color prejudices of 
dealers Is accomplished by the treatment of the beans with graphite, 
bone black, soot, chromate of lead, Scheele's green, yellow ochre, 

130 



SOPHISTICATION AND SUBSTITUTION 131 

burnt umber, Prussian Blue, ultramarine, Venetian red, chalk, talc, 
etc. The coffee-beans are first moistened with water and a little 
gum, resin, or shellac, and then shaken with the pigment. The pro- 
duction of the desired color of the bean has resulted in as high as 
seventy-five per cent profit. 

Formerly, many imitation coffee-beans were manufactured with 
great care to resemble the genuine coffee-seed. The introduction and 
extent of the previous use of spurious coffee-beans in the United 
States trade can be best estimated from the contents of an article 
which appeared in the New York World in 1890 as follows: — 

The average bulk of the genuine coffee imported into the United 
States is 8,000,000 bags, or 130,000,000 pounds per annum. Experts 
estimate that fully twenty per cent of the coffee sold to consumers is 
bogus, which raises the consumption to 216,000,000 pounds. Taking 
30 cents per pound as the average retail price, the people of America 
pay 65,000,000 dollars every year for this one article of food, of which 
13,000,000 dollars is paid for roasted and ground beans, peas, rye, or a 
manufactured article in no way resembling the Brazilian berry. To 
this must be added the production and sale of what are called "coffee 
substitutes." So extensive is this business that it is quite safe to say 
that consumers pay 12,000,000 dollars for what they believe to be cheap 
coffee. This raises the total expenditure to 77,000,000 dollars, and it 
represents a sale of 276,000,000 pounds, for the "substitute coffee" 
usually sells at 20 cents per pound. It will thus be seen that 96,000,000 
pounds of bogus coffee are sold in the United States every year, and 
some estimates place it at 120,000,000 pounds. Taking the lowest fig- 
ures, 25,000,000 dollars are received for substances which can be profit- 
ably placed on the market at six cents a pound. The manufacturers, 
therefore, receive 6,000,000 dollars for their goods, while the retailers 
gain a profit of 18,000,000 dollars. There are two kinds of bogus 
coffee, an imitation bean and the ground article. The bean is the most 
difficult to produce, and it is only recently that actual success in this 
direction has been attained. The bogus bean must not only look like 
the genuine berry when raw, but it should be capable of taking a proper 
colour when roasted. A very good specimen is now manufactured in 
Philadelphia and Trenton, being composed of rye flour, glucose, and 
water. The soft paste is then moulded and carefully dried. To the 
eye of an expert, the presence of this imitation is easy of detection, and 
it cannot be used to any great extent among wholesalers. But when 
coffee goes to the retailer, adulteration begins. Sometimes the retailer 
is deceived but nine times out of ten he is the one who introduces 
adulteration. The ground article is very easily produced for a proper 
colour and an aroma of coffee is assured by the addition of strong 
decoctions of coffee essence. 

When mixed with real cofEee even the expert eye and tongue may be 
deceived, while to the ordinary consumer it seems to be the genuine 



132 COFFEE 

product. Bogus coffee-beans have only a slight resemblance to the 
natural berry, for though they possess the proper form, the cicatrice on 
the inner surface is too smooth. Then again the grey colour of the 
raw bean is not quite up to the mark, but when these manufactured 
beans are roasted with S per cent of genuine coffee, they find a ready 
sale. These bogus beans can be made at a cost of 30 dollars per 1,000 
pounds, and when mixed with 50 pounds of pure coffee the whole 1,000 
pounds cost 37.50 dollars, or 3^ cents per pound, so that a profit of 
nearly 100 per cent is the result. There are any number of "coffee 
substitutes," the Hillis variety being the most successful. This com- 
pany is already manufacturing 10,000 pounds per week, it being sold 
by the barrel to retailers in nearly all of the New England, Middle, 
and Western States. The profits of this concern are supposed to be 
300 dollars per day, and its operations have reached such a scale that 
the stockholders were offered nearly 1,000,000 dollars for their secret 
and business, but it was declined. No one accustomed to coffee-drinking 
would imagine that a decoction of this stuff was like either Mocha or 
Rio, but when mixed with four times its bulk of genuine coffee only an 
expert could detect the imposition. The manufacturers of these "coffee 
substitutes" claim that they are not violating the law of adulterating 
of food products because they do not sell their goods as coffee, but 
simply as a substitute. While this may be true, it does not apply to 
the retailer who mixes the bogus stuff with good coffee, and sells the 
whole as the genuine article. Though manufactories may be beyond the 
penalties of the adulteration law, they should be suppressed; for without 
them, coffee-adulteration by retailers would be impossible. When it is 
to be remembered that the American people are compelled to pay 
25,000,000 dollars for ingredients that can be manufactured for one-fifth 
the sum received by coffee-growers, the necessity for the suppression of 
this nefarious trade is apparent. Oleomargarme cannot be sold as 
butter, neither should "coffee substitutes" be made to masquerade under 
the name of Java, Mocha, or Rio. 

The French government seized a factory at Lille which was 
manufacturing daily forty to fifty kilogrammes of beans which proved 
to be composed of chicory, flour, and ferrous sulphate. Imitation 
beans in England were formerly made of chicory. A sample from 
Roumania consisted of coffee-grounds, chicory, and peas. American 
factitious beans frequently consisted of wheat flour, chicory, bran, 
and some coffee; or rye flour, glucose, and water. Rehnstrom's 
English Patent 14,970 in 1889 gives a preparation for substitute 
coffee which consists in boiling down milk in a vacuum to a paste 
which w^as formed into cakes, dried below 100°, cut into pieces 
like coffee-beans, and roasted. Other factitious beans have been 
composed of peas, acorns, beans, lupines, fire clay, peanuts, etc., as 
listed on subsequent pages. 



SOPHISTICATION AND SUBSTITUTION 133 

Coffee-beans are frequently glazed with sugar or egg or dipped 
into a gummy mixture of the two. It is undoubtedly practised to 
improve the appearance of inferior grades. It has been claimed by 
manipulators that the glazing treatment aids in clarifying the infusion 
and improves the keeping qualities of the beans. Since coffee loses 
15 to 20 per cent in weight during torrefication, the roasted beans 
are sometimes steamed, the addition of water adding considerable 
weight, and then faced with some greasy substance such as fat, palm 
oil, paraffin, vaseline, waxes, or glycerine, to prevent evaporation. 
Moore's English Patent 5033 of 1889 describes a coffee-coating of 
milk or condensed milk, ground or powdered glue, 'liquid glycerine," 
and refined lard, with the addition of bicarbonate of soda, fine salt, 
and vinegar. 

Poor imitations of coffee-beans, called coffee-pellets, were formerly 
common adulterants and are still occasionally sold to retail merchants 
who add them when they grind the coffee for the purchaser. These 
pellets are made of various seeds, chicory, roasted wheat mash 
which has been colored with red ochre, etc. Some pellets are com- 
posed of roasted ground peas, pea hulls, and cereals, glued together 
with molasses. As early as 1867, machines appeared on the market 
which would give the appearance and form of coffee-beans to various 
plant products. These adulterants consist usually of i to 15% of 
roasted coffee and 85% chicory, flour, beans, peas, etc. These 
machine-made products stimulated attempts to defraud the public. 
The practice flourished in the United States until the passage of 
the Pure Food Laws which have largely checked this abuse. 

Ground coffee is the form which is subject to the most sophistica- 
tions. A factitious coal-tar dye, Naphthol Brown, has been used. 
A surprisingly large number of ground roots, seeds, cereals, and 
saccharine matters such as caramel, roasted dates, figs, etc., enter into 
this form of manipulation as will become apparent by a study of my 
list of adulteration sources. Chicory root is dried, cut into small 
pieces, and roasted as the basis for most mixtures. Large areas in 
Belgium and Northern France are devoted to the cultivation of 
chicory. Chicory is sold in Europe and in the United States as an 
addition to coffee. Among the poorer classes in those regions it is 
used as a coffee-substitute but used alone; the infusion is bitter, 
unpleasant, and possesses an offensive odor. 



134 COFFEE 

Some coffees, from which the caffeine has been largely removed, 
exist on the market to meet the demands of those who are unable 
to consume the pure product. To obtain this product, the unground 
beans are exhausted with water in a vacuum, and the caffeine is 
removed from the infusion by means of a solvent. The resulting 
caffeine-deficient beans are impregnated with decaffeinated infusion, 
after which process, the beans are dried in a vacuum. The flavor 
of the infusion from such beans is inferior to that of untreated coffee, 
but it is superior to the infusion of coffee-substitutes. Kaffee Hag 
is the chief decaffeinated coffee on the United States market to-day. 
There have been and still exist on the American and European mar- 
kets, certain products which are ioo% coffee-substitutes, as the 
subsequent lists impress. Most of these substitutes have appeared 
in response to the demands for a coffee-like beverage by persons whose 
constitutions seem to be unable to take coffee itself because of gastric 
or nervous disturbances. The following is a list of the commercial 
terms for United States coffee-substitutes: Ralston Cereal Coffee; 
Grain-o; Postum Cereal Coffee; Instant Postum; Ayer's Hygienic 
Substitute for Coffee; New Era Hygienic Coffee; Shredded Cereal; 
J. W. Clark's Phosphi Cereal Nervine Coffee; Minute Brew; 
Drinket; and numerous others which are all preparations of various 
cereals. Gairing's Grains of Health contains roots and vegetables 
and some coffee. Old Grist Mill Entire Wheat Coffee is a mixture 
of wheat, peas, and coffee. Fischer Mills Fresh Roasted Malt Coffee 
and Kneipp Malt Coffee are composed of malt or barley. Kentucky 
Coffee is made of Caesalpinia pulcherrima Sw. Jaffee is a mixture of 
prepared fruits and grains. Ko-Loc is a liquid coffee-substitute. It 
is used alone or mixed with ordinary coffee. It is prepared by a 
treatment of coffee-beans, but is practically free from caffeine. It 
is also used as a coffee flavoring extract. 

In Europe, much adulteration and pure substitution still persists 
in the name of economy. There is little doubt but that a reduction 
in the price of coffee would rapidly result in the disappearance from 
European trade of the majority of these compounds, as they are 
in no case as palatable as coffee. Moreover, all coffee-substitutes 
and adulterants, excepting rare European samples containing ground 
Cola nuts, are devoid of the exceedingly desirable volatile oil and 
the alkaloid caffeine which give coffee its most palatable and stimula- 



SOPHISTICATION AND SUBSTITUTION 135 

tfve qualities. The following is a list of commercial terms for Eu- 
ropean coffee-substitutes : 

Almond Coffee (originally made of the tubers of Cyperus escu- 
lentus L. ; later of acorns, chicory, and dandelion roots). 

Africanischer Nuszbohnen Kaffee consists of peanuts. 

Bayrischer Kaffee consists of beets, figs, legumes, and rye. 

Cafe de Rheims and Rations Coffee of the French Army consist 
of chicory and coffee. 

Datal Kaffee consists of chicory, coffee, figs, and wheat. 

Deutscher or Franzosischer Kaffee consists of chick peas. 

Domkaffee consists of chicory. 

Figine conists of chicory and figs. 

German Soda Coffee consists of cereals, chicory, and sodium 
carbonate. 

Homeopathischer Gesundheitskaffee consists of chicory, cocoa shells, 
and wheat. 

Hygienischer Nahrkaffee consists of acorns and cereals. 

Jamaika Kaffee consists of barley. 

Kanon consists of chicory, coffee, and rye. 

Kraft Kaffee, Frucht Kaffee, and Allerwelts Kaffee, consist of 
lupine seeds. 

Malto Kaffee consists of malt or a mixture of malt and other 
cereals. 

Melilotin Kaffee consists of chicory, coffee, and date-stones. 

Mogdad, Neger, and Stephanie Kaffee consist of cassia seeds 
{Cassia occidentalis L. and C. sophora L.). 

Mokara or Feigenkaffee consists of figs. 

Saladinkaffee consists of maize. 

Schwedische Kontinental Kaffee consists of Astragalus boeticus L. 
seeds. 

Sudan Kaffee consists of Parkia biglobosa (Willd.) Benth. seeds. 
(Synonymy: — Parkia africana R. Br.). 

Ungarischer Kaffee consists of chicory, coffee, and lupines. 



136 COFFEE 

§ a. BOTANICAL SOURCES OF COFFEE SUBSTITUTES 
AND ADULTERANTS 

Division — Embryophyta Asiphonogama 

Subdivision : — Pteridophyta 

Class : — FiLiCALEs 

FAMILY SOURCE GENUS AND SPECIES PART USED 

Polypodiaceae Dryopteris (Aspidium) Filix- Rhizome (with 

mas Michaux chicory). 

(Male fern) 

Salviniaceae Salvinia coffeoides Heckel (?) ? 

Division : — Embryophyta Siphonogama 
Subdivision : — Gymnosperm^ 

Pinaceae Juniperus communis L Berry. 

Pseudotsuga taxifolia (Lamb.) 
Britton Leaf. 

Subdivision : — Angiosperm^ 
Class : — Monocotyledone^ 

Gramineae Agropyrum repens Beauvais — Rhizome (with 

(Couch Grass) chicory). 

Hordeum vulgar e L Roasted grain. 

Oryza sativa L Seed. 

Secale cereale L Seed. 

Triticum cestivum L. (Postum) Roasted grain and 

molasses. 

Zea maize L Seed. 

Cyperaceae Cyperus esculentus L. (chufa Root tubercle or 

tuber) bulblet with chic- 
ory. 

Palmae Copernicia cerifera Mart. (Wax 

Palm) Seed (nut) . 

Phoenix dactylifera L. (Date 

Palm) Seed. 

Phytelephas macrocarpa Ruiz & 

Pav Seed (nut). 

(Ivory Palm) 
Liliaceae Asparagus officinalis l^ Seed (with chic- 
ory). 

Ruscus aculeatus L Seed. 

Iridaceae Iris Pseudo-acorus L Seed. 

Musaceae Musa paradisiaca L Fruit. 



SOPHISTICATION AND SUBSTITUTION 

Class : DlCOTYLEDONE^ 

Subclass: — Archichlamydeae (Choripetalae and Apetalae). 



137 



FAMILY SOURCE 


GENUS AND SPECIES 


PART USED 


Juglandacese .... 


. Carya pecan (Marsh.) Engl. 






and Grsebn 


Ground shells. 




Juglans regia L 


Fruit. 


Betulaces 


. Corylus Avellana L 


Seed. 


Fagaceae 


. Castanea vesca L 

(Syn., Castanea vulgaris L.) 
Fagus sylvatica L. (Beechmast 


Seed. 




i.e. mature fruit) 


Nut. 




Quercus Ballota Desf 


Acorn cotyledons. 




Quercus cssculus L 


<( u 




Quercus hispanica Lamk 


(( (( 




Quercus Ilex L 


« (( 




Quercus pedunculata Ehrh 


<< (( 




Quercus sessiliflora Sm 


<( <( 


Moracese 


. Cannabis sativa L 


Fruit. 




Ficus carica L 


Mature Fruit, 




(Sold as "Mochara" in Eng- 


roasted and pul- 




land and Europe at one half 


verized. 




the price of coffee.) 






Morus alba L 


Berry. 


Proteaceae 


. Brabejum stellatifolium L 


Seed. 


Polygonaceae .... 


. Fagopyrum esculentum L 


Seed. 


Chenopodlaceas . . 


. Beta vulgaris L 


Roasted and 
ground root. 


Caryophyllaceae . . 


Spergula arvensis L. (Spurry) 


Seed. 


Lauraceae 


. Sassafras officinale Nees and 


Fruit, bark, and 




Eberm 


root. 


Capparldaceae . . . 


. Boscia angustifolia Rich 


Seed. 




octandra Hochst 


Seed. 




" Pechueli Kunze (called 






Omutendereti) 


Root. 
Seed. 




Boscia senegalensis Lam 


Saxifragace^ .... 


Ribes Grossularia L. (European 






Gooseberry) 


Seed. 




Ribes rubrum L 


Seed. 


Rosaceae 


Prunus Amygdalus Baill 


Seed used in com- 
bination with 
Cassia buds and 
rye or wheat 
seeds. 




Rosa canina L 


Fruit. 


Leguminosae 


Arachis hypogaea L 

Astragalus boeticus L. (VesTe 


Seed. 




a cafe) 


Seed. 




(Syn., A. excapus L. (Swedish 





138 COFFEE 

FAMILY SOURCE GENUS AND SPECIES PART USED 

Coffee) or A. galegiformis L. 

(•)•) . . 

Ccesalpinia pulcherrima Sw. ... Seed. 

Canavalia ensiformis DC Seed. 

Cassia affinis Benth Seed. 

bicapsularis L Seed. 

corymbosa Lam Seed. 

occidentalis L Seed. 

(Wild Coffee, Coffee Weed, 
Negro, Senna or Mogdad Cof- 
fee. A common European 
adulterant.) 
Cassia quinquinangulata Rich. . Seed. 

sericea Sw Seed. 

Sophera L Seed. 

tora L Seed. 

Ceratonia Siliqua L. (Carouge) Fruit. 
Cicer arietinum L. (Chick Pea) Seed. 
Cytisus scoparius Link. (Scotch 

Broom) Seed. 

Gleditsia tricanthos L. (Amer. 

Bean Tree) Seed. 

Glycine soja (L.) Sieb. & Zucc. Seed. 
Gymnocladus dioica (L.) Koch- 
Kentucky Coffee Tree Seed. 

Lathyrus tuberosus L Tuber. 

Montanus Bernh. . . . Tuber. 

Lupinus alba L Seed. 

angustifolius L Seed. 

" luteus L Seed. 

reticulatus Desr Seed. 

Parkia biglobosa (Willd.) 

Benth Seed. 

(Syn., P. africana R. Br.) — 
Sudan Coffee. 
Parkia filicoidea Welw. — Sudan 

Coffee Seed. 

Parkia roxburghii D. Don — 

Sudan Coffee Seed. 

Phaseolus angularis (Willd.) 

W. F. Wright Seed. 

Pisum sativum L Seed. 

Prosopis alba Griesb Seed. 

Robinia pseudo-acacia L. (Lo- 
cust Tree) Seed. 

Soja hispida Moench Seed. 

Tetragonolobus purpureus 

Moench Seed. 

(Syn. Lotus) 



SOPHISTICATION AND SUBSTITUTION 139 

FAMILY SOURCE GENUS AND SPECIES PART USED 

Trigonella Foenum-gr cecum L. 

(fenugreek) Seed. 

Vicia faba L Seed. 

Vigna sinensis (L.) Endl Seed. 

(Cherry Bean or Cowpea) 

Buxaceae Buxus sempervirens L Seed. 

Simmondsia California Nutt. ... Nut. 

Aquifoliaceae Ilex aquifoUum L Berry. 

Aceraceae Acer tataricum L. (Siberia)... Seed. 

Vitaceae Vitis vinifera L Seed. 

Malvaceae Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) 

Mey Seed. 

Malvaceae Abutilon muticum Sweet Seed. 

Hibiscus esculentus L. (ochro) Fruit. 

Sterculiaceae Cola acuminata (Beauv.) Schott 

& Endl Seed (nut). 

(Chief source of Sudan Kola 
Nut Coffee. Sold in Europe 
under the term "Kolatina.") 

Cola vera K. Schum Seed. 

Theobroma cacao L Cacao seeds and 

husks. 

Myrtaceae Eugenia disticha DC Fruit. 

Umbelliferae Daucus carota L Root. 

Pastinaca sativa L Root. 

Sisum Sisarum L. (Sweet Root) Base of Stem and 

Root. 
Cornaceas Cornus mas L Seed. 

Subclass: — Metachlamydeas or Sympetalae. 

Oleaceae Ligustrum Ibota Sieb ? 

Olea europcsa L Seed (kernel). 

Convolvulaceae .... Ipomoea Batatas (L. ) Poir. . . . Root. 

Polemoniaceae .... Gilia ciliata Benth Flowering head. 

(Syn., Linanthus ciliatus 
(Benth.) Greene.) 

Solanaceae Hyoscyamus sp Seed. 

Solanum tuberosum L Tuber. 

(Tuber is half cooked and 
roasted with chicory.) 

Rubiaceas Cephalis sp Seed. 

Coffea arabica L Leaf. 

arabica L Pulp of Berry. 

Coprosma sp Berry. 

Cremospora coffeoides Hemsl. 

(Wild Coffee) 
Diplospora sphcerocarpa DC . Seed. 
G^rtnera vaginata Lam. (Mus- 



I40 COFFEE 

FAMILY SOURCE GENUS AND SPECIES PART USED 

saenda Coffee) Seed. 

Galium aparine h Fruit and roots 

with chicory. 

palustre L Fruit. 

GalUeniera (Galiniera) cojfeo- 

ides Del Seed. 

Musscenda sp Seed. 

Pavetta Baconia Hiern Seed. 

Psychotria latifoUa H.B Seed. 

Randia genipceflora DC. (Wild 

Coffee) Seed. 

Caprifoliaceae Triosteum aurantiacum Bick- 

nell (?) Seed. 

Triosteum perfoliatum L. 

(Wild Coffee) Seed. 

Compositae Cichorium intybus L Ground Root. 

Gundelia Tournefortii L ? 

Helianthus annuus L Seed. 

Scorzonera hispanica L Root. 

Taraxacum officinale Webber. . Root. 

Note: — Other adulterants which have been used, the species source 
of which I am unable to state, include dried prunes, pears, carob bean 
pods, charcoal, red slate, dried pellets consisting of ground peas, pea 
hulls, various cereals, etc., held together with molasses, clay pellets, 
kaolin, evaporated skimmed milk preparations of artificial beans, innu- 
merable beans, peas, cereals, sawdust, oak bark, burnt sugar, biscuits, 
brown bread, pilot bread, and even baked ox liver. 

§b. DETECTION OF COFFEE SOPHISTICATIONS 

(The following methods do not assume to render the precise quanti- 
tative determination of each adulterant.) 



I. Whole Beans 



A. Raw Bean Tests: 



1. If all one variety, the beans — prior to blending — should be 
uniform in size, appearance, and color. Irregularity indicates 
artificial beans. 

2. The beans should be free from stems, stones, dirt, and other 
foreign substances. 

3. Transverse section of bean should show uniform color 
throughout; if interior is lighter in shade, artificial coloring is 
indicated. 



SOPHISTICATION AND SUBSTITUTION 141 

4. Water-treatment for various inorganic color matters: 
Procedure: — Wash in water; rub with dry towel. 
Test: — Rubbing will remove cosmetic, if present. 
Procedure: — Soak beans in cold water. Treat sediment, using 

appropriate qualitative chemical methods for the suspected color- 
ing-matter (Scheele's green, chrome yellow, Venetian red, etc.). 

5. Alcohol-treatment for organic coloring-matters. 
Procedure: — Shake beans in alcohol. 

Test: — ^Alcohol is not colored by genuine coffee. 

Procedure: — Evaporate alcoholic solution to dryness. Take up 
residue in water. 

Test: — Solution will give characteristic reactions of coal-tar 
dyes if coloring matter is present. 

(a) Indigo Detection: 

Procedure: — Treat sample with dilute nitric acid. Filter; 
saturate filtrate with sulphuretted hydrogen. Extract Indigo by 
agitating with chloroform. 

(b) Prussian Blue Detection: 

Procedure: — Prussian Blue and Alkanet root may be separated 
by warming coffee-sample with a solution of potassium carbonate. 
Add hydrochloric acid; and Prussian Blue precipitates. Prussian 
Blue, if present in considerable quantities, may be detected in the 
sediment, obtained after shaking in water, by the following pro- 
cedure : — Dissolve the sediment in hot alkali ; filter and acidify 
with HCl; add drop of ferric chloride. Test: — Precipitation oc- 
curs if Prussian Blue is present. 

(c) Ultramarine Detection: 

According to Leach, "If the residue on the paper after treat- 
ment with hot alkali, on removal to a porcelain dish and treatment 
with concentrated H2SO4, yields hydrogen sulphide (recognize 
by odor or by the blackening of lead acetate paper), ultramarine is 
present." 

B. Roasted Bean Tests: 

I. Density-test for factitious beans: 

Procedure: — Place a small handful of beans on surface of full 
beaker of water. 



142 COFFEE 

Test : — Factitious beans are heavier than water and sink ; where- 
as, genuine coffee-beans are lighter and float. 
2. Alcoholic treatment: 

(a) For sugar glazing: 

Procedure: — Higler's process is satisfactory and is as follows: — 
Digest lO grms. coffee-sample three times for V2 hr. with quanti- 
ties of 100 c.c. cold alcohol (i' vol. 90% alcohol to i vol. HgO). 
Decant alcohol each time and make up to 500 c.c. Filter. 
Evaporate a considerable portion to dryness. Weigh and deduct 
ash. (To allow for action of solvent on beans, deduct 0.83 for 
each 100 parts of dry coffee. Difference may be taken as due to 
caramel.) 

(b) For shellac and resin: 

Procedure: — Shake beans with alcohol for 10 minutes. Evap- 
orate to dryness in dish. Ignite residue. 

Test: — Characteristic resinous odor indicates adulterant. 

(c) For graphite (which adheres closely and is not removed by 
shaking) : 

Procedure: — Warm samples with alcohol containing potassium 
hydroxide. 

Test: — Graphite readily removed if present. 

3. Spath's petroleum treatment for facing-matters such as fat, 
vaseline, paraffin, wax, etc. : 

Procedure: — Extract 100-200 grms. sample with light petroleum 
for 10 minutes. Decant petroleum spirit; repeat process several 
times. Evaporate petroleum extract to dryness. Digest with warm 
water. Extract fatty matter with light petroleum. Filter and 
evaporate to dryness. 

Test: — Examine residual fatty matter by usual methods for 
waxes and fats. 

II. Roasted and Ground Coffee. 

A. Physical Tests: 

I. Dry treatment: 

Procedure: — Press sample between fingers. 
Test: — If it cakes, adulterated — probably with chicory and 
cereals. 



SOPHISTICATION AND SUBSTITUTION 143 

2. Cold-Water Treatment: 

Procedure : — Place sample gently upon surface of cold water in 
a beaker; or shake sample in test-tube of cold water, and allow 
to stand aside; in which case, coffee rises to the surface. Allow to 
remain 15 minutes. 

Test: — Pure coffee, because of its oil content, does not imbibe 
water, and floats with the exception of a few highly carbonized 
portions, and gives little or no color to the water. Chicory, 
caramel, and forms of burnt sugar absorb water, sink, and pro- 
duce strong brownish-red streaks in descending; and, by diffusion, 
tint the entire liquid. Chicory possesses 3 times the tinctorial power 
of coffee. Roasted roots, berries, mineral ingredients, rye, corn, 
beans, peas, lupines, figs, etc., communicate a similar coloration, 
but less rapidly and to a less extent than chicory. Caramel gives 
a deep brown color, and the solution has a bitter taste. Inor- 
ganic coloring-matters in the sediment may be sought by ordinary 
qualitative methods. 

Procedure: — Place a sample upon a flat glass plate. Moisten 
with few drops of water. 

Test: — Pure coffee remains hard when tested with a needle. 
Adulterants become soft. 

3. Warm or Boiling-Water Treatment: 

Procedure : — Agitate a sample in boiling water. Allow to settle. 

Test: — Genuine coffee gives a clear and limpid solution. Most 
adulterants — because of the presence of starchy and saccharine 
matters — yield a thick, brown, turbid, gummy liquor. 

Procedure: — Specific Gravity Infusion Test after Messrs. Gra- 
ham, Stenhome & Campbell. Boil i part of sample with 10 parts 
H2O; filter. Determine density of infusion at 15.5° C. 

Test: — Pure coffee-infusions, because of their almost absolute 
freedom from sugar, as compared with cereal and root adulterants, 
have sp. grav. of 1.00986. Most infusions of adulterants have a 
higher value; for example, pure chicory-infusion has sp. grav. of 
1.0282 1. 

4. Salt Treatment: 

Procedure: — Shake sample in test-tube filled with saturated 
solution of common salt. 

Test: — Pale amber liquid; sample floats if pure coffee. Dark 



144 COFFEE 

yellow or brown liquid; sample mostly sinks if adulterated (prob- 
ably with chicory and cereals). 

5. Alcoholic Treatment for removal of organic coloring mat- 
ters, sugar, egg-albumen, etc., as under "Whole Bean Treatment." 

B. Chemical Analysis: 

1. Chicory Detection: 

Procedure: — Boil 10 grms. sample with 250 c.c. of water. Strain 
liquid. Precipitate with slight excess of basic lead acetate. Allow 
precipitate to settle. 

Test: — Pure coffee — supernatant liquid, colorless. Presence of 
chicory — supernatant liquid colored; the tint is roughly indicative 
of the proportion of chicory present. 

2. Starch Test (indicative of such adulterants as beans, peas, 
acorns, and all cereals) : 

Procedure : — Exhaust sample with ether to remove fat. Decolor- 
ize with alcohol. Boil sample for few minutes with 10 parts 
water. Allow to become cold. Add some dilute H2SO4. Drop 
in cautiously, with agitation, a solution of potassium permanganate 
until coloring matter is nearly destroyed. Strain liquid or decant 
from insoluble matter. Decolorize with animal charcoal. Add 
solution of iodine. 

Test: — Blue coloration if positive. As small a quantity as 1% 
can be detected by this method. Genuine coifee is free from ready 
formed starch. 

3. Ash Content as means of detecting adulteration: 

(a) Pure coffee — very nearly white in color; 3.5 to 4.5% 
(rarely 5%) in quantit)^ 

(b) Adulterated coffee — often tinted ash; red tint indicates 
some iron compound as adulterant ; high ash percentage. 

(c) For constituents of Pure Coffee Ash, see Section under 
"The Chemistry of Coifee," page 157 et seq. 

4. Caffeine Content: 

U. S. and European substitutes and adulterants are devoid of 
any caffeine ; therefore the absence of caffeine assures complete sub- 
stitution. 

(a) Caffeine Detection by the "Murexid Test" with the ma- 



SOPHISTICATION AND SUBSTITUTION 145 

terial in a solid state or with the sample residue from the evapora- 
tion of a liquid : 

Procedure: — (Allen) Heat small quantity of the solid or pow- 
dered material in a white porcelain dish. Cover with a few 
drops of strong HCl. Add (immediately) a fragment of potassium 
chlorate. Evaporate to complete dryness on water bath. (If 
caffeine be present, production of reddish-yellow or pink color is 
noted.) Cool. Treat residue with very little ammonia water, 
apphed on the point of a stirring rod. 

Test: — If positive, purple color (murexion). 

(b) For Quantitative Extraction of Caffeine, see "Allen's 
Modification of Stahlschmidt's Method" under section on "Chem- 
istry of Coffee." 

C. Microscopic Examination: 

1. With hand lense (See Plate 2, Genus Coffea: Fruit Mor- 
phology) : 

(a) Coifee-beans possess a characteristic shape with a very char- 
acteristic cleft on the ventral surface which is absent on many 
poorly manufactured beans. 

(b) A portion of the parchment investment always remains 
adhering closely in the cleft of genuine beans. The membrane 
is always absent in factitious beans although sometimes the cleft 
is filled with fine sawdust (powder). 

(c) Cross-section through the center of a bean shows a charac- 
teristic furrow with a fragment of the parchment; and the line 
of the embryo in the endosperm. 

(d) Cross-section through the germ end shows the furrow; the 
line of the embryo and a portion of the embryo (through cotyle- 
dons or radicle). 

(e) Longitudinal section, taken parallel to and slightly to one 
side of this cleft, shows the characteristic long line of the embryo 
and the germ at one end. 

2. With low-power microscope: 
(a) Raw bean tissue examination: 

Preparation of Bean: — Soak raw beans in water several hours 
or in equal parts of alcohol and glycerin for i to 2 days. 

Preparation of seed-coat: — Cut a bean lengthwise through the 



146 COFFEE 

furrow on the flat side. Strip off small piece of silvery seed-coat. 
Mount In glycerin or chloral hydrate. 

Diagnosis: — If true coffee-bean, the seed-coat is exceedingly 
characteristic. See Plate 2, Genus Coffea: Fruit Morphology. 

Preparation of Endosperm: — Soften as for seed-coat examina- 
tion. Mount thin transverse section of bean In chloral hydrate. 

Diagnosis: — Characteristics of true coffee endosperm. 

( 1 ) Epidermis plus first layer or two In approximation possesses 
cell-walls of uniform and even diameter. (See Photomicrograph.) 

(2) Remaining endosperm consists of irregularly polygonal 
parenchymatous cells with exceedingly characteristic, knotty, thick- 
ened walls — best seen in microtome sections — and very large pits 
often forming ovate spaces occasionally as long as the width of the 
cell. These cells contain brilliant, colorless, spherical oil globules, 
and protein matter. One who Is sufficiently familiar with the 
various commercial coffee-beans Is able to recognize the seeds of 
Coffea liberica Bull, which are utilized commercially as fillers, 
from those of Coffea arahica L., since Arabian coifee-seeds are not 
only much smaller In size and less coarse in general structure but 
the entire endosperm is composed of polygonal cells of a fairly 
uniform size; whereas the endosperm of Liberlan coffee exhibits 
polygonal cells in the outer portion but toward the center the cells 
become distinctly oblong and rectangular (see Photomicrograph). 

Preparation of Embryo: — Soften seed as above and dissect out 
embryo. 

Diagnosis: — True coffee-embryo possesses a thick radicle and 
two cordate, leaf-like cotyledons. See Plate 2, Genus Coffea: 
Fruit Morphology. Cotyledons are composed of delicate paren- 
chymatous cells. 

(b) Ground roasted coffee tissue examination. 

Preparation: — Spread out sample on white paper. 

Diagnosis: — ^Jet black particles are frequently caramel. If so, 
they will dissolve in water, giving it an intense brown color and 
bitter taste. 

Preparation: — Sift to separate fine particles (powder). Soften 
some of the coarser ones. Section any suspicious particles in 
pith. Decolorize sections by short maceration in solution of 
chlorinated soda. Examine in dilute glycerin. 



SOPHISTICATION AND SUBSTITUTION 147 

Diagnosis: — Compare with prepared sections of true coffee-bean 
for seed-coat and endosperm structure. 

Preparation : — Decolorize the fine powder. Centrifuge or other- 
wise separate. Wash with distilled water. Examine in dilute 
glycerin (or macerate for a day in ammonia to render the tissues 
transparent and mount in ammonia). 

Diagnosis: — Compare with coffee-bean tissues. No foreign 
tissues should be present. The coffee endosperm cells are distinc- 
tive, and oil globules are detectable in them. Bits of the seed- 
coat appear in the powdered — very finely ground — preparation as 
delicate silver-like patches and the sclerenchymatous cells of the 
seed-coat are readily observed, appearing as peculiarly characteris- 
tic spindle-shaped, thick-walled cells. These cells should be sought 
for, as they are always present in genuine coffee. A few small 
spiral vessels are present. (See Plate 2, Genus Coffea: Fruit 
Morphology.) The most common adulterant of coffee, namely, 
ground roasted chicory root, is readily detected by decolorizing 
the powdered sample with a solution of chlorinated soda; wash, 
stain with Soudan red, and note the lactiferous vessels which are 
characteristic of it. Furthermore, the ground sample, digested for 
fifteen minutes in a solution of potash in a water bath, washed, 
and mounted in glycerin or chloral hydrate, will show the diag- 
nostic characters of abundant parenchymatous tissue in wood and 
cortex, of lactiferous and many small sieve tubes with transverse 
plates in the cortex, and of vessels with large pits in the wood. 

Note : — If, in examination of ground coffee, starch is ascertained 
by the chemical tests, thereby indicating cereal or other adultera- 
tion, the sample should be exhausted with ether to remove the fat 
and subsequently treated with alcohol to dissolve the coloring mat- 
ter, before the residue is examined microscopically to determine the 
adulterant. 

Conclusion : 

Preparation of coffee for commercial purposes results in the removal 
of the greater portion of the seed-coats so that the bean consists 
largely of the endosperm. It is necessary to have prepared sections 
of the various adulterants of coffee for comparative examination 
as well as to be familiar with the characteristics of genuine coffee- 
tissue. With this information at hand, the microscopic determina- 




PLATE 51 A: COFFEA ARABIC A L. 

Fruit: — Transverse Section. 

Magnification 12 X. 




PLATE 51 B: COFFEA ARABIC A L. 

Endocarp (parchment) : — Transverse Section. 

Magnification 500 X. 

148 




PLATE 52 A: COFFEA ARABIC A L. 

Santos Coffee Bean: — Transverse Section. 

Magnification 12 X. 




PLATE 52 B: COFFEA ARABIC A L. 

Rio Coffee Bean: — Transverse Section. 

Magnification 12 X. 
149 




PLATE 53 A: COFFEA ARABICA L. 

Santos Coffee Bean: — Transverse Section. 
Magnification 12 X. 




PLATE 53 B; COFFEA ARABIC A L. 

Santos Coffee Bean: — Longitudinal Section. 
Magnification 12 X. 
150 



SOPHISTICATION AND SUBSTITUTION 151 

tion of commercial coffee is the only absolutely positive and reliable 
Jxnethod of diagnosis. 

Having determined that the sample is 100% coffee, it should be 
remembered that it is of primary importance to make an infusion to 
test the aroma and flavor, as coffee may be pure and yet possess such 
an aroma and flavor as to render it totally undesirable for beverage 
purposes. 

I have been convinced from the examination of samples of the 
coffee-products from many of the leading commercial wholesale coffee 
concerns and innumerable retail samples, that there is very little 
substitution and adulteration of the w^hole bean by the large reput- 
able houses, although it is still met w^ith in other concerns. The mix 
ing of various grades is commonly detected. Glazing and facing 
are practised to a considerable extent. Ground coffee is subject to 
considerable adulteration, as samples from Massachusetts Retail 
Stores contained roasted chicory root, peas, beans, bread, wheat, pel- 
lets, oats, charcoal, etc. Chicory is, as has always been the case, 
the chief adulterant. The chefs of certain hotels order a 10% 
chicory content, in which case the addition is scarcely to be classed 
as an adulterant as it adds certain desirable qualities which are highly 
prized by some trade. 

During the past seventy-five years, thirty-eight botanical families 
including ninety-eight genera and one hundred and twenty-three 
species have been utilized as sources for coffee-substitutes and adul- 
terants. 

In regard to the blending of coffee, it should be said that such 
mixtures as that of equally choice beans of American strength-giving 
coffee, soft Java, and the deliciously flavored Mocha, are unquestion- 
ably an improvement over many pure type coffees. Blending is ac- 
complished at the wholesale houses by weight, which assures a uniform 
product. 

Bibliography : — microscopy — substitution — adulteration : — Editor 
in Lancet 2 (1852) 137, 158. — Galtier Traite Toxicol, et Falsific. Ali- 
ments, Boissons, etc. 2 (1855) 674. — Hassall Food and Its Adult. (1855) 
3, 168, 527. — Graham, Stenhouse, and Campbell in Journ. Chem. See. 9 
(1857) 36. — Ludwig in Arch. Pharm. ser. 3, i (1872) 482. — Allen in 
Chem. News 29 (1874) 140. — Leebody in Chem. News 30 (1874) 243. — 
Dingler's Polytechn. Journ. 211 (1874) 78. — Franz in Arch. Pharm. 
ser. 3, 8 (1876) 298.— Moeller in Bot. Zeitg. 38 (1880) 737; in Din- 




PLATE 54 A: COFFEA ARABIC A L. 

Epidermis and Endosperm: — Transverse Section. 

Magnification 500 X. 



<1 




PLATE 54 B: COFFEA ARABIC A L. 

r Polygonal cells. 
Endosperm ■< Knotty cell walls, 
[oil globules. 

Transverse Section. 

Magnification 500 X. 

152 




PLATE 55 A: COFFEA LI BE RICA BULL 

Epidermis and Outer Endosperm: — Transverse Section. 
Magnification 500 X. 




PLATE 55 B: COFFEA LIBERICA BULL 

Inner Endosperm (oblong-rectangular cells). 
Transverse Section. 

Magnification 500 X. 

153 




PLATE 56 A: COFFEA LIBERICA BULL 

Seed: — Transverse Section. 

Magnification 12 X. 




PLATE 56 B: COFFEA LIBERICA BULL 
Germ: — Transverse Section. 
Magnification 500 X. 
154 




'^'^^^^ 



PLATE 57 A: COFFEA LIBERICA BULL 

Seed: — Transverse Section. 

Magnification 12 X. 




PLATE 57 B: COFFEA LIBERICA BULL 
Longitudinal Section showing Position of the Germ. 
Magnification 12 X. 
155 



156 COFFEE 

gler's Polytechn. Journ. 237 (1880) 61. — Rimmlngton in Pharm. Journ. 
sen 3, II (1880) 529. — Smith in Pharm. Journ. ser. 3, 11 (1880) 568. 
— Smethane in Analyst 7 (1882) 73. — Wanklyn Tea, Coffee, and Cocoa 
(1883). — Thurber Coffee: from Plantat. to Cup ed. 9 (1884) 162. — 
Hanausek in Chem. Zeitg. 10 (1886) 701; in Zeitschr. Nahr.-Unters. 
Hyg. 3 (1889) 3; 4 (1890) 25, 172, 237, 257; 5 (1891) 185, 218; 
7 (1893) 85, 195. — Battershall Food Adult, and Its Detect. (1887) 29. 
— Coster, Hoorn and Mazure in Rev. Internat'l. Falsific. i (1887-88) 
162; 4 (1890) 7. — Nevinny in Zeitschr. Nahr.-Unters. Hyg. i (1887) 
21, 85. — Pade in Bull. Soc. Chem. 47 (1887) 50i- — Paul and Cownley 
in Pharm. Journ. ser. 3, 17 (1887) 565, 648, 821, 921. — Konig in Zeit- 
schr. angew. Chem. i (1888) 630. — Fricke in Zeitschr. angew. Chem. 2 
(1889) 121, 310. — Greinert in Pharm. Zeitg. 34 (1889) 192. — Konig 
in Chem. Centralbl. 20 (1889) i, 51. — Pade in Chem. Centralbl. 20 
(1889) 2. — Portele in Zeitschr. Nahr.-Unters. Hyg. 3 (1889) 221. — 
Reuter in Pharm. Centralh. 30 (1889) 494. — Trillich Die Kaffeesur- 
rogate, ihre Zusammensetz. u. Unters. (1889). — Dustan in Zeitg. Nahr.- 
Unters. Hyg. 4 (1890) 13. — James in Rev. d'hyg. (1890) no. 12. — Van 
Hamel Roos in Rev. Internat'l. des Falsific. 4 (1890-91) 166. — Waage 
in Apoth.-Zeitg. 5 (1890) 219. — Wolff enstein in Zeitschr. angew^. Chem. 
3 (1890) 84. — Kew Bull. (1891) 201-204. — Trillich in Zeitschr. angew. 
Chem. (1891) 540; (1896) 440; (1898) 542. — Konig in Centr.-Org. 
fiir Waarenk. u. Techn. i (1891) i. — Portele in Chem. Zentr. 61 (1891) 
135. — Moscheles and Stalzer in Chem. Zeitg. 16 (1892) 281. — Gun- 
driser in Zeitschr. Nahr.-Unters. Hyg. 6 (1892) 373. — U. S. Dept. 
Agric, Div. Chem., Bull. 13, pt. 7 (1892) 899-932. — Walsh Coffee: 
Hist. Classif. Descript. (1894) I99- — Lehmann Die Fabrik. des Surro- 
gatkaffees u. Tafelsenfes (1893). — Pearmann and Moor in Analyst 20 
(1895) 20, 176. — Rohrig in Forschber. Lebensm. Hyg. 2 (1895) 15. — 
Spath in Forschber. Lebensm. Hyg. 2 (1895) 223. — Brunotte in Rev. 
Internat'l. Falsific. 9 (1896) 48. — Gawalowski in Zeitschr. Nahr.-Unters. 
Hyg. 9 (1896) 123.— Planchon and Collin Les Drogues Simp. D'Org. 
Veget. 2 (1896) 186. — Raumer in Forschber. Lebensm. Hyg. 3 (1896) 
333. — Hilger in Zeitschr. Anal, Chem. 36 (1897) 226. — Morpurgo in 
Zeitschr. Nahr.-Unters. Hyg. 6 (1898) 9. — Wurtz in Zeitschr. Nahr. 
Genuszm. i (1898) 248. — Rufiin in Ann. Chem. Anal. 3 (1898) 114. — 
Griinhut in Zeitschr. Anal. Chem. 38 (1899) 37* — Bertarelli in Zeitschr. 
Nahr. Genuszm. 3 (1900) 681. — Mitlacher in Zeitschr. Allg. Osterr. 
Apoth. — Ver. 39 (1901) i. — Cribb in Analyst 27 (1902) 114. — Winton 
Microsc. Veget. Foods (1906) 257, 262, 302, 389, 427, 438, 466. — Leach 
Food Insp. and Anal. (1907) 292. — Lendrich and Murdfield in Zeitg. 
Unters. Nahr. Genuszm. 15 (1908) 705. — Greenish Microsc. Exam. 
Foods and Drugs ed. 2 (1910) 230. — Guillot in Perrot's Travaux du 
Lab. Mat. Med. de L'Ecole Super, de Pharm. de Paris pt. 2, 8 (1911) 
I. — Allen Comm. Org. Anal. ed. 4, 6 (19 12) 651. — Gould in Eighth Int. 
Cong. App. Chem. 26 (1912) 389. — Karsten and Benecke Lehrb. Pharm- 
akog. ed. 3 (1920) 320. — Leach and Winton Food Insp. and Anal. ed. 4 
(1920) 397. 



CHAPTER VIII 
THE CHEMISTRY OF COFFEE 

Primary attention has been given to the alkaloids of coffee In order 
to indicate the source, constitution, and method of extraction of those 
substances which are present In the coffee-bean and which have an 
appreciable effect on the animal organism. Special emphasis has been 
placed on caffeine, as it Is the chief stimulative constituent of coffee. 

1817 dates the beginning of our chemical knowledge of plant alka- 
loids. In 1 81 7, the crystalline, salt-forming, and physiologically ac- 
tive substance morphine was discovered by Sertiirner in the opium 
poppy, Papaver somniferum L. In the same year Roblquet dis- 
covered narcotine; and in 18 18, Pelletier and Caventon discovered 
strychnine. In 1820, Runge prepared caffeine from the seeds of 
Coffea arabica L. ; and in 1827, Oudry isolated a similar principle 
in the leaves of Thea sinensis L. and called it theine. It has been 
established as identical with caffeine. 

The molecular constitution of plant alkaloids has been Investigated, 
and a large number of vegetable alkaloids have been synthesised. 
Caffeine was synthesised In 1895 by Fischer and Ach who published 
their results in Berichte 28 (1895) 3i35- These molecular studies 
make possible the present classification of plant alkaloids based on 
their nuclear structure; and the following nine groups are arranged 
in accordance with the nature of the bases from which they are 
derived : 



m 



158 COFFEE 



Groups Example Usual Botanical Source 

I. Pyrrole Stachydrine Stachys Sieboldii Miq. 

(Tubers) 



2. Pyridine Coniine Conium maculatum L. 

(Poison Hemlock Fruit) 



THE CHEMISTRY OF COFFEE 



59 



Formulae 



Empirical Constitutional 

CHisOsN.H.G CH CH CH2 CH< 

I 



CH 



CsH,,N 



CH CH2 CH2 

/ \ / 

NH NH 

Pyrrole Pyrrolidine 

CH2 CH2 



CO CH CH2 

I \ / 

I \/ 

O N(CH3)2 

Stachydrine 
(a dimethyl betaine of pyrolidine) 



CH- 



CH 



CH 



CH 



CH 



NH 

Pyrrole 
CH 

/\ 

CH CH 

II I 

CH CH 

\// 

N 
Pyridine 



CH 
NCH. 



CH2 

CH2 CH2 

CH2 CHCH2CH2CH. 

NH 

Coniine 



[6o COFFEE 



Diheterocyclic Atropine Atropa Belladonna L. 

(with a common (Leaves and Roots) 

nitrogen atom) 



4. Quinoline Strychnine Strychnos Nux-vomica L. 



5. Iso-Quinoline Papaverine Papaver somniferum L. 

(Juice from unripe cap- 
sules of the Opium Poppy) 



THE CHEMISTRY OF COFFEE 



i6i 



CirH^sOsN CH2 — CH — CH; 



CH, 



N.CH3 

I 
-CH — 



C21H22O2N2 CH 



CH2OH 
CH.O.CO — CH < 
/ C6H5 

— CH2 

Atropine 
( dl-tropyltropeine ) 

CH2 CH 



//\ /\ /\ 



// 
CH 

I 
CH 

\/ 

CH 



C 
C 



CH 



\ 
CH 



C CH 

/\ /\ 
\/ 

N C 



CH. 



CO 



CH2 



CH 

I 
CH 



\ 
CH, 

I 
CHo 



C20H2XO4N 



CHOH 

Strychnine (Perkin & Robinson) 

C CH, C CH 



// 
CH 



//\ 



CH 
CH 



//\ /\ 
// \/ \ 
N C C.OCH3 



CH3O.C 

C.OCH3 



CH 

V 

CH 



C 
C 



C.OCH3 
CH 



Papaverine 



1 62 



COFFEE 



6. Glyoxaline 



Pilocarpine Pilocarpus Selloanus Engler 
(Jaborandi Leaflets) 



7. Purine 



Caffeine Coffea arabica L. 

(Seeds) 



8. Cyclic or Acyclic 
(derivatives of 
aliphatic amines) 



Choline Amanita muscaria (L.) Pers. 

(Entire Plant) 



9. Alkaloids 
of Unknown 
Constitution. 



Aconitine Aconitum Napellus L. 
(rhizome) 



THE CHEMISTRY OF COFFEE 



163 



CixHieO^N^ 



C8H10O2N4 



C.H,.O.N 



C34H45O11N 

(acetylbenzoxyl- 
aconine) 



C^Hs.CH.CH.CH^.C.NCCH^) 

\ 



\ 



CO CH2 

\/ 

o 

Pilocarpine 
CH3.N CO 



CO 



CH— N 



)CH 



CH..N 



N(CH3) 
)CH 

N 



Caffeine 



(1:3:7: trimethylxanthine or \ 

1:3:7: trimethyl — 2:6: dioxypurinej 



N(CH3)30H 

I 
CH2CH2OH 

Choline 



*(; 



i64 COFFEE 

It is noteworthy that plant alkaloids seem to occur only in certain 
families of the vegetable kingdom. Although alkaloids occur in many 
other families in addition to the list given below, one finds them most 
frequently in dicotyledonous phanerogamous plants, less frequently in 
monocotyledons, and least frequently in cryptogams. 

Families Rich in Families Poor in Families Inter- 

Alkaloids Alkaloids mediate 

Ranunculaceae Gramineae Compositae 

Papaveraceae Orchidaceae 

Fumariaceae Rosaceae 

Leguminosae Labiatae 

Apocynaceae 

Solanaceae 

Rubiaceae 

It has been found not only that alkaloids are present mainly in few 
families but also that the alkaloids in any one family and especially 
in any particular genus are, as a rule, closely related. The purine 
group of alkaloids, however, to which caffeine belongs, are contrary 



j "f to this generalization, as they are closely related and occur in sev- 



j[s eral families. 

'Jj The origin of alkaloids in plants is a debatable question. Pictet 

If states that they are produced in two successive stages: (i) Decompo- 

.4 sition of complex nitrogenous substances (ex. Protein or Chlorophyll) 

j" to simple basic substances. (2) Combination of these simple basic 

substances with compounds present in the plant, which results in 
the formation of the complex alkaloid molecules. Thus Drs. Haas 
and Hill ^ have stated, "The processes of metabolism within the 
plant would therefore be strictly analogous to those taking place in the 
animal body, in which waste products, such as phenol, glycerine, 
etc., are coupled up with other substances such as sulphuric or benzoic 
acid, before being eliminated." A well-known product of the metab- 
olism occurring in animals is uric acid which is recognized systemat- 
ically as 2 : 6 : 8 trioxypurine and may be represented by the constitu- 
tional formula: 

^ Haas & Hill Chem. PI. Prod. ed. 3, i (1921) 271. 



THE CHEMISTRY OF COFFEE 165 

NH CO 



CO C NH 

^CO 
NH C NH 

This acid does not occur in plants ; yet its formula shows such a 
close relationship to other purine bases as to indicate that the forma- 
tion of purine bases in plants may, as in animals, be waste products 
of metabolism. In fact, Foss, in Compt. Rend. 155 (1912) 851 and 
156 (1913) 567, has observed urea traces in higher plants. It is, 
however, questionable whether or not they are a physiological pro- 
duct of the cell. 

The function of alkaloids in plants is difficult to explain. It has 
been suggested that they are nutritive materials utilized in vegetable 
metabolism, and that they are protective materials against animal 
attack. It seems more probable that they are end-products of nitrog- 
enous metabolism, which are rendered harmless to plants by con- 
version into alkaloids and merely happen to be stored up because of 
the inability of the plant to rid itself of them. Caffeine does not 
seem to be so intimately related to protein metabolism as are the 
other purine bases. Nevertheless, the purine bases, which are a part 
of the nucleic acids, form the major proportion of the nucleus which 
is the center of all cell-division. Thus it seems plausible that these 
purine bases play an essential part in the growth of both plants and 
animals. 

The purine bases to which the coffee alkaloid caifeine belongs, in- 
clude caffeine which is found in Thea sinensis L. leaves; in Cola 
acuminata Schott & Endl. fruit; in Ilex paraguariensis St, Hil. 
leaves (mate) ; in Paullinia Cupana H.B.K. fruit (guarana) ; and 
in Cojfea arabica L. seeds, which are of special interest in this treatise. 
The purine alkaloids also include theobromine which is present in the 
fruit of Theobroma cacao L. ; theophylline in the leaves of Thea 
sinensis L. ; xanthine in the leaves of Thea sinensis L. ; in the root 
sap of Beta vulgaris L., and in a number of sprouting seedlings; 
hypoxanthine in the seeds of Piper nigrum L. ; inosine, a pentoside of 
hypoxanthine, which is found in yeast and beet root; guanine, found 



i66 



COFFEE 



in Peruvian guano and leguminous seedlings ; adenine, found in the 
leaves of Thea sinensis L., and in the root of Beta vulgaris L. ; and 
vernine, a pentoside of adenine, found in Vicia seedlings. These sub- 
stances are all derivatives of the same base, purine. Purine is also 
the mother substance of a number of compounds present in animals, 
such as uric acid, methyl- and dimethyl-xanthine, methyl-guanine, etc. 
The relationship of the members of this group to the mother substance 
and to each other is best noted from a consideration of their constitu- 
tional formulae. 

Purine. 
,N==eCH 



CH 5C- 



:N- 



.0 



-7NH 



or purine, written in the following form, shows clearly that it con- 
sists of two rings; the upper six-membered pyramidal ring; and the 
lower five-membered imidazol or gly-oxaline ring. 

2CH N^ 

/ \ 

/ \ 

3N eCH 

\ / 

4^ L/5 



,N 



\ 



7NH 



\ / 
gCH 

Xanthine or 2 : 6 dioxypurine. 
NH CO 



CO 



NH- 



-C- 



-NH 
>CH 

-N 



This formula indicates that xanthine may be regarded as purine plus 



THE CHEMISTRY OF COFFEE 167 

two oxygen atoms attached to the carbon atoms, numbers 2 and 6 
respectively, and hence the term 2 : 6 dioxypurine. 

Theobromine or 3 : 7 dimethyl-xanthine. 
NH CO 



CO 



c- 



N(CH3) 
)CH 

NCCHs) C N 

Formula demonstrates that theobromine is derived from xanthine by 
the replacement of two hydrogen atoms, at numbers 3 and 7 respec- 
tively, by methyl groups (CH3). 

Caffeine or 1:3:7 trimethyl-xanthine or 1:3:7 trimethyl 2 : 6 
dioxypurine. 

N(CH3) CO 



NCCHa) 
^^CH 



-N 



r 



CO 

NCCHs)— 

Formula indicates that caffeine is derived from xanthine by the re- 
placement of three hydrogen atoms, at numbers i, 3, and 7 respec- 
tively, by methyl groups (CH3). 

For further evidence to help substantiate this formula for caffeine, 
it will be noted that caffeine contains three nitrogen-methyl groups 
(i.e. 3 methyl-amino groups). Hence the caffeine formula may be 
written C5HN02(NCH3)3. The relation of caffeine to uric acid 
is shown by the nature of its oxidation products Thus, as uric acid, 
when treated with potassium chlorate and hydrochloric acid, decom- 
poses into alloxan and urea ; so caffeine, when similarly treated, 
changes into dimethylalloxan and monomethylurea. 



[68 



COFFEE 



O 

u 






o 
u 

A 

+ 

o 
— u — 



-u 



o 
+ 
o 

+ 



5v. 



O 

H 

o 

^^ 



o 
u 

- ^^ - 

ffi w ffi 



+ 

o 






u 

t 

I 

o 

+ 

o 



o 

■u 



o 



o 















O 

u 



o 



-u 



o 

-u 









o 
u — 






u 



— u 



o 

-u 



:U 



u 






THE CHEMISTRY OF COFFEE 169 

The decomposition products of caffeine include methylhydantoin. 

CH3 

/ 

CH2 N 



^O 



CO NH 

Comparison shows that the caffeine molecule and also the uric acid 
molecule are formed by the union of two nitrogenous rings. The 
one found in dimethylalloxan is a hexatomic ring and the one in 
methylhydantoin is a pentatomic ring. Thus there are two possible 
atomic groupings for caffeine; namely, 

c , c 

/\ CH3 /\ 

/ \ / / \ 

CH3 N C N CH3 N C N 

I i /^ I I /^ 

C C N C C N 

\ / or \ / \ 

N N 

I I 

CH3 CH3 

Fischer has shown that the first form is correct, as it alone possesses 
the atomic grouping which contains the chain of dimethylamide, 
CH3-NH-CO-CO-NH-CH3, which is another decomposition prod- 
uct obtained by him. This being the case, the position of the double 
bond, of the two oxygen atoms, and of the hydrogen atom was solved 
by Fischer from his research on oxycaffeine and hydroxycaffeine. 

Caffeine reacts with halogens to form substitution products in 
which the substituted halogen atom readily exchanges for other 
radicles. Caffeine also forms unstable addition products with bro- 
mine. Chlorcaffeine, C8H9CIN4O2, is converted into methoxy- 
caffeine, C8H9N402(OCH3), when treated with caustic soda in 
methyl alcohol. Methoxycaffeine, boiled with dilute hydrochloric 
acid, eliminates methyl chloride; and oxycaffeine, C8H10N4O3, is 
formed. 



170 COFFEE 

Oxycaffeine has been shown to be trimethyluric acid : 
CO CO 

/\ CH3 /\ CH3 

/ \ / / \ / 

CH3 N C N CH3 N C N 

I II /^^ I II /COH 

CO C NH CO C N 

\ / or \ / 



N N 

I I 

CH3 CH3 

The heating of the silver salt of oxycaffeine with methyl Iodide pro- 
duces a mixture of tetramethylurlc acid and methoxycaffeine. 

CO CO 
y\ CH3 /\ CH3 

/ \ / / \ / 

CH3 N C N CH3 N C N 

I II /^^ I II ^C — OCH3 

CO C N CO C N 

/ \ \ / 



cHa \y 

N N 

I I 

CH3 CH3 

Tetramethyluric Acid Methoxycaffeine 

Formation of these two substances Indicates that oxycaffeine may 
react in two tautomeric forms such as -NH-CO and -N=C(OH)-. 
Since these groups can occur only in the hydantoln nucleus, the 
methoxyl of methoxycaffeine must exist In this nucleus. 

The following formulae are for chlorcaffelne and caffeine ; namely, 

CO CO 

/\ CH3 /\ CH3 

/ \ y / \ / 

CH3 N C N CH3 N C N 

I II \CCL I ll NcH 

I II //^^^ I II /^" 

CO C N CO C N 

\ / \ / 

N N 

I I 

CH3 CH3 

Chlorcaffeine Caffeine 



THE CHEMISTRY OF COFFEE 



171 



must be correct since a study of preceding formulae and reactions 
shows that methoxycaffeine is derived from chlorcafEeine which is 
derived from caffeine. 

Complete synthesis of the alkaloid, caffeine, was obtained by Fisch- 
er from dimethylalloxan which, when treated with neutral methyl 
ammonium sulphite, forms an addition product which is converted 
by concentrated hydrochloric acid irito trimethyluramil. This sub- 
stance when heated with an aqueovis solution of potassium cyanate 
yields tri-methyl-pseudo-uric acid which on being boiled with dilute 
hydrochloric acid condenses to 1:3:7 trimethyluric acid or hydroxy- 
caffeine. Hydroxycaffeine crystallizes in needles which melt at 
345 °C. It is slightly soluble in cold water, alcohol, and ether. It 
possesses both basic and acid properties. Hydroxycaffeine is converted 
into chlorcaffeine by treatment with phosphorous pentachloride. 
Chlorcaffeine, when reduced with zinc and hydrochloric acid, yields 
caffeine. 

The complete synthesis of caffeine from dimethylalloxan as ex- 
plained in the text is indicated by the following constitutional formu- 
lae: 



CH, 



CO 



-N 



\ 
CO 



CO CO 

N 
I 

Dimethylalloxan 



CO 

/\ 
/ \ 

CH3 N CH— NH— CH3 



CO CO 

N 

I 
CH3 

Trimethyluramil 



172 



COFFEE 



\ 



o 



o/ 















2 






o 




C3 'o ^3 








>- 


-u 


o-uric 
ed by 
loric a 








R^ 




a = i; 


O 






u 




^ D o 


ffi 










rimethyl-p 
being con 
dilute hyd 












h 














/U U\ 












o/ \^ 


K 


2'£ 








u\ }^- 


-u 


^-^ 








\z o/^ 




^1 














J»s 














n:-c 










, 




H 



o 



o/ 

•u 



'Z — u 






THE CHEMISTRY OF COFFEE 173 

CO CO 

/\ CH3 /\ CHs 

/ \ / / \ / 

CHs N C N +2H CH3 N C N 

i II >c« -^ I 11 >CH + Ha 

CO C N CO C N 

/ 



N N 

I I 

CHs CH3 

Chlorcaffeine Caffeine 

(or 1:3:7 trimethyl-8-chlordIoxy- (or 1:3:7 dimethyl-2:6 dioxy- 
purine) purine) 



The constitutional formulae of the other principal members of the 
purine group are given below: 

Adenine or Hypoxanthine or Guanine or 

6 aminopurine 6 oxypurine 2 amino 6 oxypurine 

N==CNH2 NH— CO NH— CO 

I I II 

II II 
CH C NH CH C NH NH2C C NH 

II II >« II II >" II II >™ 

N C N N C N N C N 



The composition of coffee has been studied by a large number of 
investigators, but much remains to be accomplished. Subsequent 
statements refer to the seeds of Cojfea arahlca L, unless otherwise 
qualified. The chief alkaloid in coffee is caffeine, and varies in 
amount from 0.5% to 2.2% with an average content of about 
1.3%. Gorter has shown that it occurs in coffee as potassium caffeine 
chlorogenate. Paladino isolated crystals of the base coffearine from 
coffee-extract by boiling with milk of lime. Coffearine, C14H16O4N2, 
occurs as colorless deliquescent needles, melting at I40°C. and giving 
a faint alkaline reaction. It forms a hydrochloride, C14H16O4N2 
HCI.H2O, melting at i8o°C. Graf repeated and confirmed Pala- 
dlno's experiment. Nitrogenous constituents of coffee other than 
caffeine are In need of research. The proteins, however, have been 
studied by some investigators, and have been found to consist of 



174 COFFEE 

legumin or vegetable casein. Polstorff obtained 0.25% of trigonel- 
line. 

The extraction and estimation of the total caffeine-content of 
coffee-beans is not a simple matter. The various proposed methods 
of procedure may be divided into four groups : 

( 1 ) Extraction of caffeine by means of boiling water and subse- 
quent treatment of the infusion with lime, magnesium, litharge, or 
basic lead acetate to precipitate the tannin, etc. 

(2) Treatment of the material with lime and magnesium or 
ammonia; and extraction with chloroform. 

(3) Extraction of the caffeine in the material directly by means 
of aqueous sodium benzoate or salicylate with or without an alkali, 
and subsequent treatment of the alkaline liquid with chloroform. 

(4) Gomberg's method whereby caffeine is extracted by means of 
water and the alkaloid is precipitated in acid solution as a periodide. 

These methods are described in Allen's Comm. Org. Anal. ed. 4, 6 
(1912) 607-614. The method I used with greatest success is a form 
of that described in group i, and is known as 'Allen's Modification 
of Stahlschmidt's Method.' Outline as follows: 

Take 12 grms. of coffee (finely powdered). 

Boil with 500 c.c. of water for 6 hrs. under a reflux condenser. 

Filter off extract (the residue being washed with hot water on 
the filter). 

Dilute with water to 600 c.c. 

Heat to boiling. 

Add 4, grms. of powdered lead acetate; stir well to remove coloring 
matter. 

Attach reflux condenser and boil for 10 minutes. 

(If, on removing heat, the precipitate does not curdle and settle 
readily, leaving the liquid colorless, add more lead acetate and repeat 
the boiling.) 

Pass through dry filter. 

Collect 500 c.c. of filtrate and evaporate to 50 c.c. 

Add a little sodium phosphate to precipitate the remaining lead. 

Filter; wash precipitate; evaporate total filtrate to 40 c.c. 

Extract caffeine by shaking with at least four portions of chloro- 
form. 



THE CHEMISTRY OF COFFEE 175 

Collect the combined chloroform solutions in a tared flask ; immerse 
in boiling water; distill. 

Evaporate off the solvent (chloroform), while hot, by an air 
current. 

Dry to constant weight ; weigh residue as caffeine. 

The weight represents the amount of caffeine present in 10 grms. 
of coffee.^ 

Crystalline Caffeine Properties 

Caffeine forms long, white, silky, flexible needles, which readily 
adhere and mat together to form light fleecy masses. When deposited 
slowly, crystals present a characteristic appearance under a magnify- 
ing power of 100 to 300 diameters. Caffeine crystals heated to 
iOO°C. become opaque and friable owing to the loss of water; and 
the residue is anhydrous caffeine which dissolves without turbidity 
in chloroform. Anhydrous crystals of caffeine can also be deposited 
from ether or alcohol. 

Melting Point (Strecker) 233° to 234°C. 

(Allen) 23i.5°C. 

(German Pharmacopoeia) .... 230. 5°C. 

(U. S. Pharmacopoeia) 236.8°C. after drying. 

Sublimation Point (German Pharm.) i8o°C. 

(U. S. Pharm.) I78°C. 

Crystalline caffeine: water content (British Pharm.) 8.49%; 
(Allen) 7.05% to 7.10%. Caffeine is odorless and gives a bitter 
taste. It forms an acid solution in ether and alkaline in chloroform. 
The presence of caffeine can be detected by evaporating a given 
liquid with nitric acid. The residue becomes crimson or purplish- 
red when ammonia is added. 

The nature of caffetannic acid has been a matter of dispute. 
(For method of preparation, see Allen's Comm. Org. Anal. 6 (19 12) 
645.) Gorter has shown it to be a mixture of chlorogenic and caffalic 

^ Paul and Cownly noted that the caffeine obtained by the evaporation of 
chloroform is likely to contain small quantities of a brownish, waxy, or 
resinous impurity, and therefore should be purified by resolution in boiling 
water and recovered by evaporating the filtered solution and drying the 
residual alkaloid at ioo°C. These investigators found that the proportion of 
caffeine in coffee varied but slightly, and is not materially affected by roasting 
excepting a loss in amot:nt up to 21%. This fact recommends the estimation 
of tlie alkaloid in commercial coffee as a means of ascertaining the proportion 
of chicory or other adulterant present. 



176 COFFEE 

adds and other substances. He states that chlorogenic acid, 
C32H38O19, can be purified through its calcium salt and crystallized 
as needles with melting point at 208 °C. It acts as a dibasic acid; 
and, on hydrolysis with an alkali hydroxide, it yields caffeic or 3 : 4 
dihydroxycinnamic and quinic acids. Chlorogenic acid gives a charac- 
teristic color reaction by means of which its presence has been detected 
in other seeds. Caffalic acid, C34H54O15, is obtained in the form of 
prisms melting at 255 °C. and possessing a sweet taste. Caffeine seems 
to exist in the seeds of Coffea liberica Bull in the form of potassium 
caffeine chlorogenate, C32H360i9K2(C8Hio02N4)2.2H20. Gorter 
isolated it in colorless prisms. He states that the fact that caffeine 
can not be completely removed from cofiee with anhydrous organic 
solvents is due to this association of caffeine with chlorogenic acid. 
Contrary to this, Lendrich and Nottbohn maintain that the retention 
of caffeine is due to adsorption by the tissue of the coffee-bean. 
According to Allen and lately repeated an4 confirmed by the 
author, it was noted that caffetannic acid, when it is dissolved in 
ammonia water and the solution exposed to the air, produces a 
bluish-green liquid owing to the formation of the oxidation-product, 
viridic or viridinic acid, which is an amorphous brown substance, very 
soluble in water and forms a solution which is turned green by 
alkalies. It also gives a bluish-green precipitate with barium hy- 
droxide solution; and a blue precipitate with lead acetate. Nestler 
has used the production of this green coloration resulting from the 
addition of alkalies to detect the presence of coffee in mixtures and 
extracts. 

The determination of the sugar content of coffee has been care- 
fully studied by Ewell, who found 6% of sucrose in fat-free coffee, 
extracted by 70% alcohol. The insoluble matter after the com- 
pletion of acid hydrolysis gives galactose. By distillation with hy- 
drochloric acid, he obtained furfural equivalent to 90% of pentose. 
He has obtained a gummy substance which on hydrolysis gave rise 
to a reducing sugar, furfural; and mucic acid resulted on oxidation. 
Therefore, Ewell concluded that the gummy substance was a com- 
pound of pentose and galactose. Schultze and Maxwell found that 
raw coffee contained galactan, mannan, and pentosans, the latter 
present to the extent of 5% in raw and 3% in roasted coffee. Baker 
states that manno-arabinose or manno-xylose forms one of the im- 



THE CHEMISTRY OF COFFEE 177 

portant constituents of the coffee-cherry substance and that it yields 
mannose on hydrolysis. 

The following table regarding the composition of the ash of 
coffee is compiled from information given in the U. S. Dept. Agric. 
Div. of Chem., Bull. 13 pt. 7 (1892) 904. 

Coffee Ash. 

Constituents Mocha Rio Java 

Chlorine (Cl) 1.25 0.48 O.73 

Ferric oxide (Fe.OJ 0.89 1.77 1. 16 

Lime (CaO) 7.18 4.94 4.84 

Magnesia (MgO) 10.68 10.60 ii-35 

Phosphoric Acid (P^O.) 12.93 ii-53 14-09 

Potash (K^) ...;.!' 59.84 63.60 62.08 

Sand 1.44 1.34 0.74 

Silica (SiO.) 0.88 0.69 0.91 

Soda (Na,0) 0.48 0.17 

Sulphuric Acid (SO3) 4.43 4.88 4.10 

100.00 100.00 100.00 

Rochleder found the fat of coffee contained glycerides of palmitic 
acid and an acid of the composition C12H04O0. Tretzel found that 
the glycerides of palmitic, stearic, and oleic acids, and free dihydroxy- 
stearic acid were present. 

Coffee Fat Values (according to Tatlock and Thompson). 

Spec. 
Coffee Grav. 

Raw 

Roasted 0.9354 

Me5^er and Eckert have separated a fatty oil and a wax from raw 
cofiee. They give the following table: 

Oil Saponifica- 
Coffee tion Value Iodine Value 

Raw 160 to 182 90.1 to 91.2 

Fatt}^ acids present were mainly linoleic, palmitic, and carnaubic 
acids, together w4th traces of oleic, daturic, and caproic acids. The 
wax contained carnaubic acid in combination with a resin alcohol. 
The unsaponifiable matter of the coffee fat included Phytosteral. 





Saponi- 




Iodine 


fication 


Unsapon- 


Value 


Value 


ifiable 


99.0 


179-5 


5.26 


99.0 


179.5 


5.51 



178 COFFEE 

Tatlock and Thompson state that tannin is not found in roasted 
coffee and that the lead precipitate contains the coloring matter. 
They report 4.5% of tannin as precipitable by gelatin in raw coffee. 

In conclusion, the following table presents a general mean compila- 
tion of the chemical analysis of various investigators who used coffee- 
beans of Coffea arabica L. as their base : 

Composition Per Cent in Per Cent in 

Raw Beans Roasted Beans 

Ash . 3 to 4 4 to 5 

Albumin 10 to 1 1 1 1 to 13 

Caffeine i-j- i 

Caffetannic Acid 8 to 10 4 to 5 

Cellulose (crude fibre and non-nitroge- 
nous matter) 38 48 

Dextrin I i 

Fat and Oil 11 to 13 13 to 14 

Moisture 10 to 1 1 1 

Nitrogenous Extract and Coloring Matter 4 to 7 12 to 14 

Sugar 9 to 10 ^ 



Effect of Roasting the Coffee-Bean 

Roasting and pulverizing coffee-beans induces the changes to which 
the Havor and aroma are largely due. The toughness of the bean 
is destroyed, which facilitates the subsequent grinding. If not 
previously removed, the testa or so-called "silver skin" separates 
during the roasting-process, and is known as flights or fibre, and 
should be removed before grinding. The process should be carried 
on at a temperature of 200°-250° C. Torrefication causes the beans 
to swell and lose from 12 to 20% of their weight, of which 8% 
is removable water. If they are roasted to a yellowish-brown color, 
about 12.5% of their weight is lost, the product is difficult to grind, 
and the flavor is not well developed. If they are roasted to a chest- 
nut-brown color, 18% is lost, and the beans are brittle and possess 
a pleasing aroma and flavor. If roasted until black, even although 
not entirely carbonized, the beans lose 23% of their weight, and 
the product has a nauseating and empyreumatic flavor. In general, 
112 lbs. of raw berries yield 98 lbs. of roasted coffee or a loss of 
12.5%. According to Hilger and Juckenack, if the coffee is glazed 
with sugar, the losses on roastmg are much higher, owing to the 



THE CHEMISTRY OF COFFEE 179 

increased temperature required. The following are experimental 
results : 

Losses for ordinary coffee 19-3% total loss. 

" of original fat 9-7% 

" " " caffeine 21.1% 

Losses for sugar-glazed coffee i5-3% total loss. 

of original fat 18.3% 

caffeine 44-3% 

Roasting is the most important operation in the preparation of 
coffee, and should be carried on in a closed vessel in which the 
beans are constantly in motion and under uniform temperature. For 
the best results, only beans of one size should be roasted at a time. 
The beans emit smoke, turn brown, and commence to sweat, which 
shows that the essential oil is being separated, and the beans become 
glossy. 

By just the proper degree of roasting, the volatile oil is produced 
at the expense of some other constituents. Jaeckle found in 1898 
that caifeine is volatilized slightly and certain other products are 
formed, such as acetone, furfural, ammonia, trimethylamine, formic 
and acetic acids. Moriari and Scoccianti, however, reported in 1895 
that if the beans are heated to 26o°C., no trimethylamine is formed, 
but he detected appreciable quantities of pyridine and its homologues. 
The fat is somewhat decomposed, which results in increased amounts 
of free fatty acids. The sugar-content of the beans becomes caramel- 
ized, and the caffetannic acids lose one-half of their weight. The 
volatile oily substance is termed "calfeone" or "caffeol," and has 
been held to be the chief factor responsible for the aroma of coifee. 
Bernheimer has suggested for caffeol the formula C8H10O2 or 
C6H4(OH) .CH2.OCH. The chemistry of the formation of this 
substance is not well understood. It is the product of torrefication 
and the influence of heat on the other constituents which produces 
the materials for its composition. Its identity, however, has re- 
cently been disputed ; and several authors have detected pyridine. 
Moreover, Erdmann has found that the aroma of coffee was pro- 
duced w^hen caffeine, sucrose, and caffetannic acids are heated to- 
gether, and that the absence of any one results in the non-existence 
of the aroma. The dietetic property of coifee is due to caifeine, 
CgHioNiOa, and is not affected by torrefication beyond a slight loss 



i8o COFFEE 

in amount. It may be well to state here that investigators who have 
detected caffeol suggest that coffee's dietetic value is due as much 
to the presence of caffeol as to caffeine. 

Caffeine is identical with the alkaloid found in tea, where it is 
called theine. More coffee is necessary to produce a cup of coffee 
than the amount of tea to make a cup of tea ; since, weight for weight, 
tea-leaves yield twice as much theine as coffee-beans do caffeine. 
Coffee-grounds contain 13% of nutritious gluten. Eastern natives 
drink these coffee grounds (as is also true of cacao) as well as the 
decoction, and thereby obtain the full nutrition derivable from the 
bean. Old ground coffee deteriorates so that it is best, when pos- 
sible, to grind small quantities as needed by the consumer. 

The table of the general composition of the coffee-bean indicates 
that nearly the entire saccharine-content of the bean disappears simul- 
taneously with the roasting process. This is not true of chicory and 
other cane-sugar yielding plants. Hence, the coloration of water by 
a ground coffee clearly indicates adulteration as shown under the 
section on "Detection of Coffee Sophistications." 

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Martius in Kastn. Arch. Naturlehre 7 (1826) 266. — Pelletier in Journ. 
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(1827) 49. — Pfaff & Liebig in Schweigger's Journ. fiir Chem. u. Physik 
61 (1831) 487; 64 (1832) 372. — Zenneck in Buch. Repert. Pharm. 37 
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THE CHEMISTRY OF COFFEE i8i 

(1880) 348.— Bouissgault in Compt. Rend. 91 (1880) 639.— Czech in 
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Chem. PL Life (1921) 160. 



CHAPTER IX 

TABLE-COFFEES 

§ a. EXPLANATION OF TERMS 

(i') Cafe a la creme: — Cafe nofr with the addition of plain or 
whipped cream. 

(2) Cafe au lait : — Coffee with milk, or French Breakfast coffee, 
is a strong coffee served with boiling milk, usually about one-half 
coffee and one-half milk. 

(3) Cafe noir, Black, or After-dinner Coffee: — These terms imply 
that the infusion has been prepared from a large proportion of 
coffee which was percolated until the liquid was black. 

(4) Coffee Extract or Essence: — Coffee essence Is deficient usually 
in its caffeine-content; and its color Is dissimilar to the freshly pre- 
pared beverage. Strong alcohol, as a preservative, and caramel, as 
a color corrective, are commonly added. It Is prepared commercially 
by distillation (i.e., the liquid is steamed and evaporated until re- 
duced to the desired strength). 

(5) Creole Coffee: — A slowly percolated coffee. Freshly roasted 
and ground coffee Is pressed into the filter of the pot and boiling 
water poured over it at five minute intervals. A very strong and 
rich extract results. A tablespoonful per cup Is sufficient. This 
extract may be preserved in an air tight vessel for future use. 

(6) Demi-tasse de Cafe or Cafe demitasse: — Originally used to 
designate a half cup of coffee, but now signifies Cafe noir and 
is usually served in small cups. 

(7) Dutch Coffee: — A cold-water process involving the use of 
very finely ground coffee-beans which are held in a special filter 
possessing top and bottom reservoirs. Four hours are required for 
the water to percolate through. This process results in a high per- 
centage of strength and flavor. 

(8) French Coffee: — Addition of ten to thirty per cent of chicory, 

182 



TABLE-COFFEES 183 

very heavy roasting of the bean, .and the occasional addition of a 
little butter and sugar during the roasting, all combine to give 
the coffee a special flavor. It is prepared in a percolator from finely 
ground cofFee through which the liquid is passed several times to in- 
crease its strength. 

(9) Russian Coffee: — Merely a strong, black coffee. 

(10) Sultana Coffee: — Infusion of dried and roasted pulps with- 
out the beans. This mode of preparation is practised in certain re- 
gions of Turkey and Persia. Sultana coffee also refers to a decoc- 
tion of the raw beans. Sometimes, in lieu of boiling raw coffee in 
water, a procedure similar to the preparation of a tincture of tea 
is followed. The decoction of green coffee is made by boiling one- 
eighth of a pound of coffee, powdered or uncrushed, in one pound 
of water for one-quarter of an hour. This resulting liquor is re- 
moved from the fire and allowed to set for some time in a closed 
receptacle, is sweetened with sugar, and drunk warm. 

(11) Turkish Coffee : — The beans are ground to a powder which 
is put in cold water and brought to the boiling point but not allowed 
to boil. It is served at once without straining or settling of the 
grounds. The Turks, as is the common practise in many eastern 
countries and especially among the poorer classes, eat the grounds 
and seem to relish them as well as the infusion. In this way they 
obtain the entire value of the bean. 

(12) Vienna Coffee: — Prepared in a special urn which continually 
passes the steam through finely ground coffee and thereby retains the 
full aroma. Whipped cream is added. 

§ b. FORMULAS FOR PREPARATION 

Coffee, raw or roasted, should be kept from strong odors as it 
absorbs them readily. Roasted coffee should never be exposed to the 
air, as it rapidly loses its flavor and aroma. Coarse ground coffee 
requires a long infusion to extract the full strength. Too much boil- 
ing spoils the aroma and flavor. One should use as pure coffee as 
can be obtained and of the desired flavor. Coffee should be freshly 
roasted, freshl) ground to moderate fineness, and freshly made in 
a scrupulously clean coffee-pot. Sufficient coffee should be used. 
Two ounces of coffee per pint of water makes an excellent beverage. 



i84 COFFEE 

Cold water, dashed into a boiling coffee decoction, checks the boiling 
and causes the grounds to settle, leaving the liquid clear. The ad- 
dition of a small piece of charcoal accomplishes the same result. The 
grounds should never be allowed to remain in the coffee for any con- 
siderable period. 

( 1 ) Decoction or Boiling : — Place ground coffee in cold water 
and allow to boil for a few seconds. This method results in a strong 
and excellent liquid. The "Old Fashioned Boiling Method" in- 
volves the addition of the white of an egg to the ground coffee and 
boiling water which has boiled hard for ten minutes. The boiling 
water is poured over it, allowed to come to a boil, and stirred 
thoroughly once, after which it is placed on the back of the stove 
for ten minutes. This method results in an excellent coffee but 
requires great care. 

(2) Filtration or Distilling: — A percolator is used. Boiling 
water is passed slowty through ground coffee which is held at the 
center of the percolator. This method is widely resorted to, as the 
results are uniform. 

(3) Infusion or Drawing: — Ground coffee is placed in boiling 
water and kept hot without boiling for ten minutes. This method 
produces a very pleasing beverage but it does not bring out much 
of the stimulating property of the bean. 

To assure the best results, regardless of the method of preparation, 
the water must be strictly fresh. The use of previously boiled water 
will alter an otherwise pleasing beverage into a drink which possesses 
a most unpalatable flavor. If the water used has been boiled until 
it is ''flat" or if the water used is impregnated with lime, sulphur, 
or iron, the fine flavor of coffee will be destroyed. Since coffee is 
readily contaminated with odors, coffee should be stored in a closed 
glass container. If cream is used, it should be covered while in the 
refrigerator as it readily absorbs the odors of butter, vegetables, etc., 
which will cause the coffee to taste queer. 

The household preparation of raw coffee is not difficult. Since 
the pleasing aroma developed during torrefication is rapidly dissipated 
from the time of roasting, it is necessary to have it freshly roasted 
in order to enjoy the best results. In Europe, in the well regulated 
homes, the daily supply is roasted every morning. This is not com- 
monly practised in England and the United States. It may be 



TABLE-COFFEES 185 

roasted In small frying pans and powdered without a coffee-mill. Any 
dish will serve the purpose. One is able to ascertain the critical 
roasting point by the color which should generally be more reddish 
than brown; by the odor which is extremely aromatic; and by the 
brittleness which is such that it can be crushed between the finger 
and the thumb. This freshly roasted coffee should be ground to a 
fine powder, and the beverage prepared immediately. If one is un- 
able to roast his own coffee, it is ven" desirable to purchase freshly 
roasted coffee-beans in small quantities several times a week. The 
coffee should be stored in a closed glass jar, as this method of keeping 
it will preserve the aroma for some time. Eighty-five to ninety-five 
per cent of the caffeine is extracted by boiling water. A cup hold- 
ing 150 c.c. of the infusion, contains about 1.5 grains of caffeine. 

Excellent coffee is easily made in an ordinarily porcelain or 
granite-lined coffee-pot without any kind of filtering attachment. 
In preparing the beverage with this simple equipment, the following 
procedure applies: 

( 1 ) Maintain the proportion of one cup even full of dry ground 
coffee (fine as granulated sugar) to six cups of water. If pulverized 
coffee is used in an ordinary coffee-pot, it should be enclosed in a 
close-meshed bag, or the drink will be muddy. 

(2) Place coffee in pot and add fresh, boiling water in the above 
proportions. 

(3) Boil coffee and water together for five minutes only, as coffee 
should not be cooked. It has been previously roasted. 

(4) Add a large tablespoonful of cold water to settle the grounds. 
If desired, the white of an egg may be added which will result in a 
wine-like clearness. 

(5) Serve immediately. 

Although coffee is not entirely tasteless, it is of primary importance, 
since the gustatory and olfactory senses are intimately associated, that 
the fragrance of the coffee-beverage should be preserved if full en- 
joyment is to be assured to the drinker. 

It is noteworthy that the history of human experience and scientific 
experimentation shows beyond any reasonable doubt that the coffee- 
beverage, properly prepared and rightly used, gives comfort to man 
by safely stimulating his mental and physical activities. As Professor 



i86 COFFEE 

Samuel C. Prescott reported In December, 1923, ''Coffee, if properly 
prepared, has a remarkable stimulating and fatigue-relieving effect 
due to the action of caffein which acts on the central nervous system. 
It promotes heart action mildly, increases the powder to do muscular 
w^ork, and increases the power of concentration of mental effort, 
and therefore is an aid to sustained brain work. It has no depressive 
after-effect. It is not habit-forming, and does not require continually 
increasing quantities to give satisfactory stimulation." 

Coffee is not injurious to the great mass of people. Coffee is 
taken as a stimulant, and of course can be abused. Large quantities 
of any stimulant are deleterious. It Is necessary to find out how much 
coffee agrees with the individual, and to refrain from over-indulgence. 
Coffee is indeed a drug in the sense of being a stimulant, but It is 
the only stimulant which does not have a depressive after-effect. 
There are a few people who can not drink coffee with safety to their 
health. Such individuals suffer from an eccentricity In this regard 
just as certain persons should not eat spinach or certain fruits. The 
fact that such cases exist, does not detract from the value of the 
beverage to the masses of humanity. As a nation, our consumption 
of coffee has increased from 200,000,000 pounds per annum during 
the Civil War period to nearly 1,350,000,000 pounds at the present 
day. Or, stated In terms of per capita quantities, the United States 
consumption of 5 pounds per person In 1866, has increased to over 
12 pounds a year or about 500 cups per Individual. In other words, 
the United States consumes two billion cups yearly or nearly five and 
one-half million cups daily. 



CHAPTER X 
CAFFEINE-YIELDING PLANTS OF THE WORLD 

Economic Plants Possessing the Alkaloid Caffeine: 
CsHioN.O^ 

SPECIES FAMILY PART APPROXIMATE % 

Coffea species Rubiaceae Seed 0.5 to 2.2% 

Leaf 1.3% 

Geographical Distribution : — Africa. Now introduced through- 
out the tropics and subtropics of the world. 

The caffeine-content varies greatly within the genus. For infor- 
mation regarding the various species of coffee^ see the section devoted 
to the species in question. For extremes as regards the caffeine-con- 
tent, see: 

Coffea arah'ica L. var. Humhlotiana (Baill.) Froehner. 

Coffea arah'ica L. var. amarella Hort. ex Froehner. 

Coussarea hydrangeaefolia Benth. & Hook. Rubiaceae Leaf used 

— ? % 



Geographical Distribution: — Bolivia (Santa Cruz and Bellavista 
regions). 

Thea sinensis L. Theaceae Leaf i to 4.8% 

(average 2 to 2.5%) 
This species is the chief source of tea. 
Geographical Distribution : — China. 

Thea assamica Mart. Theaceae Leaf i to 4.8% 

(average 2 to 2.5%) 
Geographical Distribution: — Upper Assam; Province of Cachar. 
For cultivated areas by introduction, see map. 

Cola acuminata (Beauv.) Schott & Endl. Sterculiaceae 

Seed 2.3 to 3.6% 

Synonymy: — Cola vera K. Schum. Sterculia acuminata Beauv. 

187 




LjCOnOTOlC I L ants Herbanun* QAmes 

Thea. sVir^enslS L. 
Mative Cou.-T\tru :- Ch tnaL 
Use anaTVoperliu :-T€.a. ]Bevevaae 



PLATE 58: THE A SINENSIS L. 



1 88 




i89 




Ca_^ „^ ,0,^ JS!. , dx^ 



HerbaT'lu.Tn O. K'tnes 
LCOTiOTr»Vc T^Laiits 
VioLa acu-TTitnaLaL 

CotnTTion TVame-i- CoV.a lluTC 
Source :-i>otan*(C Lrard«.T»s-ifinUsiA 



PLATE 60: COLA ACUMINATA (BEAUV.) SCHOTT & ENDL. 

190 



CAFFEINE-YIELDING PLANTS 191 

This species Is the principal source of the Cola Nut or Gourou, 
and contains, on the average, about 2.3% caffeine. 

Geographical Distribution: — Indigenous In West Africa from 
Rio Nunez south through the Congo. Cultivated in the West Indies 
and most tropical countries. 

Cola astrophora Warb. Stercullaceae Seed 

Geographical Distribution : — Togo region, No. West Africa, 

Cola anomala K. Schum. 

Geographical Distribution: — Tropical West Africa. 

Cola Ballayi Cornu 

Geographical Distribution : — Tropical West Africa. 

Cola digit at a Masters 

Geographical Distribution: — Kamerun ; Gabon. 

Only 0.26% caffeine. 

Cola gabonensis Masters 

Geographical Distribution : — ^Gabon. 

Cola Johnsonii Stapf 

Geographical Distribution: — Tropical West Africa. 

Cola lepidota K. Schum. 

Geographical Distribution : — Kamerun. 

Cola pachycarpa K. Schum. 

Geographical Distribution : — Kamerun ; Congo. 

Cola spaerosperma Heckel 

Geographical Distribution : — Gabon. 

Cola sublobata Warb. 

Geographical Distribution: — Aschanti region. 

Cola verticillata Stapf 

Geographical Distribution: — Tropical West Africa. 

The fruits of some species are edible. The fruits of certain species, 
for example Cola Supfiana Busse of the Togo region and Cola cordi- 
folia (Cav.)R.Br. of Senegambia and Togo regions, contain no 
caffeine. There are doubtless species additional to those listed above 
which are used as adulterants and as substitutes for Cola acuminata 
(Beauv. ) Schott & Endl., and v^^hlch are devoid of caffeine; but I am 
unable to obtain reliable information concerning them. 

Theobroma Cacao L. Stercullaceae Seed 0.05 to 0.36%. 

This species Is the principal commercial source of cocoa, chocolate, 
etc. 



McKinley's Geographical and Historical Outline Maps. No. 103b. Abie^ 




Cfvyrlght, 1902. Tht McKinley PublishinK Co., Philadelphia. P». 

PLATE 61: COLA SPECIES: DISTRIBUTION 



192 




PLATE 62: THEOBROMA CACAO L. 



193 




194 



CAFFEINE-YIELDING PLANTS i95 

Geographical Distribution : — Indigenous in Mexico, West Indies, 
Central America, and South America from the Orinoco river to the 
Amazon basin in Brazil, especially in the Para and Bahia districts 
as regards Brazil. Also indigenous in Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. 
For present distribution by introduction, see Map. 

Theobroma bicolor Humb. & Bonpl. 

Geographical Distribution: — Colombia (formerly New Granada). 

Theobroma glauca Karsten 

Geographical Distribution : — Colombia. 

Theobroma leiocarpa Bernoulli 

Geographical Distribution : — Central America. 

Theobroma Martiana D. Dietr. 

Geographical Distribution : — Brazil. 

Theobroma pentagona Bernoulli 

Geographical Distribution : — Central America. 

Theobroma Saltzjnanniana Bernoulli 

Geographical Distribution: — Brazil. 

Theobroma speciosa Willdenow 

Geographical Distribution: — Brazil (Microcacao). 

Theobroma subincana Martius 

Geographical Distribution: — Brazil. 

Paullinia Cupana H. B. & Kunth Sapindaceae Seed 3.1 to 5.0%. 

Synonymy : — Paullinia sorbilis Martius 

This plant is the source of a drink known as "Guarana" or ''Bra- 
zilian Chocolate." 

Geographical Distribution: — Amazon region, with the Eastern 
limit at Santarem at the mouth of the Tapajos river and the Western 
range to the Madeira river. Northward, in Venezuela between the 
Orinoco and the Rio Negro in Brazil. The principal region is 
between the Tapajos and Madeira rivers. It follows the Madeira 
river southward to Cochabamba and Santa Cruz de la Sierra in 
Bolivia. 

Copernicia cerifera Mart. Palmae Seed ?%. 

The seeds are described as being rich in caffeine and highly nutri- 
tious ; but I have been unable to ascertain what percentage of caffeine 
they contain. The seeds are used as a substitute for coffee. This 
plant is known as the Carnauba or Wax Palm. It is valuable also 
as the source of a wax which is used in candle and phonograph record 




PLATE 64: PAULLINIA CUP AN A H. B. K. 

From Bentley & Trimen Med. PI. 1 (1880) No. 67. 

A Leaf and a Flower Panicle. 

L Vertical Section of Flower. 2. Petal. 3. Vertical Section, Petal show- 
ing appendage. 4. Fruit. 5. Fruit with one Valve removed to show Seed. 

196 



McKlnlejr't Geographical and Historical Outline Mapi. No. lOSb. South America. 




raulliTila 

CvjLpanai HB.K. 

See. Text 

GomTnoTi Tlaines : — 
' us-ra-na : cViocolate 



x:3 



CO trom 50 On 



Copyright. 1902, The McKinley Publiihing Co., PhiUdelphia. Pa. 

PLATE 65: PAULLINIA CUP AN A H. B. K 
DISTRIBUTION 



197 




PLATE (>e: COPERNICIA CERIFERA MART. 
198 



McKinley'B Geographical and Historical Outline Maps. No. 105b- South America. 




Cerl>evaL Ulart | 
IS24 Dlstrltutionj 
V'OTnTnon I lames : — 
varnauoa or I 

NWax Pal 



Copjright, 1902, The McKinley Publishing Co., Philadelohia. Pa. 

PLATE 67: COPERNICIA CEIUFERA MART. 
DISTRIBUTION 



IQ9 



200 COFFEE 

manufacture, shoe-maker's wax, etc. The fibres of the wax-freed 
leaves are made Into sombreros, roofs, baskets, brooms, and mattings. 
Parts are used in medicine; and the trunk yields an alcoholic drink 
possessing a pleasant flavor. The fruit is edible, the upper part of 
young stems is eaten as food; and the slender branches serve as 
cattle forage. The root yields a starch which is prepared as a flour. 

Geographical Distribution: — American tropics. Chiefly in the 
Pernambuco, Ceara, Rio Grande do Norte, and Bahia provinces of 
Brazil. 

Ilex species (South American Group) 

Aquifoliaceae Leaf 0.27 to 2.0% 

The following South American species of the genus Ilex are the 
source plants of Paraguay Tea or Mate. The average caffeine-con- 
tent of the leaves is 1.2%. 

Ilex affinis Gardn. 

Geographical Distribution: — Bahia, Minas Geraes, Goyaz, Matto 
Grosso, and Sao Paulo provinces of Brazil. 

Common Name: — Congonha, Congonha do campo. 

Ilex amara (Veil.) Loesener 

Geographical Distribution : — Bahia, Espiritu Santo, Rio de Jan- 
eiro, Minas Geraes, Sao Paulo, Santa Catharina, and Rio Grande do 
Sul provinces of Brazil. Corrientes province of Argentina. 

Common Name: — Cauna, Caurina, Congonha, Congonhinha, and 
Caachiri in Brazil. 

Ilex chamae dry folia Reiss. 

Geographical Distribution : — Minas Geraes and Goyaz provinces 
of Brazil. 

Common Name: — Congonhinha, Congonha do campo, and Con- 
gonha minda. 

Ilex conocorpa Reiss. 

Geographical Distribution: — Rio de Janeiro and Minas Geraes 
provinces of Brazil. 

Common Name : — Congonha, Catuaba do mato. 

Ilex Cuyabensis Reiss. 

Geographical Distribution: — Matto Grosso province of Brazil. 

Common Name: — Congonha. 

Ilex diuretica Mart, ex Reiss. 



CAFFEINE-YIELDING PLANTS 201 

Geographical Distribution: — Minas Geraes province of Brazil. 

Common Name: — Congonha. 

Ilex dumosa Reiss. 

Geographical Distribution: — Minas Geraes province of Brazil. 
Uruguay. Paraguay. 

Common Name: — Congonha minda In Brazil and Caa-Chiri in 
Paraguay. 

Ilex glazioviana Loesener 

Geographical Distribution: — Rio de Janeiro province of Brazil. 

Common Name: — Congonhinha. 

Ilex paltorioides Reiss. 

Geographical Distribution: — Minas Geraes province of Brazil. 

Common Name: — Congonhinha. 

Ilex paraffuariensis St.Hil. 

This species is the source plant of most of the Mate or Paraguay 
Tea, which Is a rival of coffee in Uruguay and some other regions 
of the interior of South America. The use of Mate and Herva (a 
Mate product) has spread into certain regions of the United States. 
Beverages under the terms Mate and Herva, which are described as 
exhilarating beverages, are sold (1922) by 'The Mate Industries, 
Inc.,' at 571-573 Centre Street, Jamaica Plain, Boston, Massachu- 
setts. 

Geographical Distribution: — Minas Geraes, Sao Paulo, Parana, 
Santa Catharina, and Rio Grande do Sul provinces of Brazil. Co- 
rrlentes province of Argentina. It also occurs throughout Paraguay. 

Common Name: — Mate, Matte, Herva Mate, Congonha, Herva 
de Congonha, and Congonhas In Brazil. Yerba Mate, Congonhl, 
Congolnfe In Argentina. Caaguagua In Paraguay. 

This plant is called Brazilian Holly by the English-speaking popu- 
lation of South America; and the beverage is referred to as Brazilian 
Tea, Mate, Paraguay Tea, Jesuit's Tea, and St. Bartholomew's 
Tea. 

In the Argentine alone more than 140,000,000 lbs. per annum, or 
about twenty pounds per capita. Is used. All of this amount except 
about 3,000,000 lbs. is Imported from Brazil and Paraguay. 

Ilex Pseudothea Reiss. 

Geographical Distribution: — Minas Geraes province of Brazil. 

Ilex symplociformis Reiss. 





LCOTlOmlc rLaTlX5 : V\erfcariuTn 0^(asKt 



IL 



ex para<5u.aT\,e-nsts 



Sir.Hil. 



al i. c b « 



e.v eTT a4 e l s 
-prepa.re.4 ^ro-m "tUe. le-ave_^. 



1924 



PLATE 68: ILEX PARAGUARIENSIS ST. HIL. 

202 



CAFFEINE-YIELDING PLANTS 203 

Geographical Distribution: — Bahia province of Brazil. 

Ilex theaezans Mart. 

Geographical Distribution : — Bahia, Minas Geraes, Rio de Janeiro, 
Sao Paulo, Parana, and Rio do Sul provinces of Brazil. Corrientes 
province of Argentina. 

Common Name: — Cauna, Cauna amarga, Cauna de folhas, and 
Pao d'aceite in Brazil. Yerba in Argentina. 

Ilex Vitis-Idaea Loesener 

Geographical Distribution: — Minas Geraes province of Brazil. 

Ilex species (United States Group). 

Two species of Ilex containing caffeine in the leaves to the average 
amount of 1% and tannin up to 7.4% occur in the southeastern 
region of the United States vv^here they are known as the North 
American Tea Plants, Yaupon, Cassina, and as the Christmas Berry 
Tree. The Indians from Virginia to the Rio Grande and southward 
throughout Florida utilized the leaves of Ilex Cassine L. and Ilex 
vomttoria Ait., chiefly the latter, to prepare a drink similar in quality 
to Mate. These two species are indigenous along the Atlantic coast 
from the James River, Virginia, southward through Florida and 
extending westward through the Gulf States to the Rio Grande 
River. They are found inland for a distance of only twenty to thirty 
miles. They occur abundantly in dense thickets on the Sea Islands 
off the coast of South Carolina. 

In Carolina and Virginia, these species were commonly used as 
substitutes for tea and coffee. They were called "Yaupon" or "Yo- 
pon" from ''Yap" or "Yop," the Indian word of this region for the 
wood, stem, or tree (or bush) of these species. The beverage is 
also known as "Dahoon," and the plants, especially Ilex Cassine L., 
as Dahoon Holly. 

In Florida, the Timucua Indians called the plant "Cassine" and 
"Cassena" from the Muscogee Indian term "assie" meaning leaves. 
This drink called "Cassine" or "Cassena" was known to the Whites 
as the Black Drink or Black Draught. It was prepared by the early 
white population in one of three ways: (i) an infusion of the fresh 
leaves; (2) an infusion of the dried leaves; (3) an infusion of the 
leaves which was allowed to ferment and become intoxicating. Mas- 
tication of the herb referred to as "Cassiana" was long ago reported 
from Florida as effective in combating hunger and thirst for a period 



McKlnley't Geographical and Historical Outline Mapi. No, 105b. South America. 




e X Spe-cies 
_D I si r I out i Ti In e?o. Aiuer lea. 

rov In c CL oji ArOenll 



Copyright, 1902. The McKinley Publithing Co.. Philadelphia, T*. 

PLATE 69: SOUTH AMERICAN ILEX SP., DISTRIBUTION 



204 




PLATE 70: ILEX VOMITORIA AIT. 



205 




206 



CAFFEINE-YIELDING PLANTS 207 

of twenty-four hours. The use of Ilex species as the source-plant of 
a beverage made from its leaves has been know^n since 1650. In 
l'682, Thomas Ashe, an Englishman, writing his Account of Carolina 
said: "There grows in Carolina the famous Cassiny, whose admir- 
able and incomparable Vertues are highly applauded and extolled by 
the French and Spanish Writers : It is the Leaves of a certain Tree, 
which boyl'd in Water (as we do Thea) wonderfully enliven and 
envigorate the Heart, with genuine easye Sweats and Transpirations, 
preserving the Mind free and serene, keeping the Body brisk, active 
and lively, not for an hour or two, but for as many days as those 
Authors report, without any other Nourishment or Subsistence, which, 
if true, is really admirable: they also add, that none amongst the 
Indians but their great Men and Captains, who have been famous 
for their great Exploits of War and Noble Actions, are admitted to 
the use of this noble Bevaridge." 

During the Civil War, when tea and coffee could not be obtained, 
the people of the southern states used the cassina leaves to prepare 
a stimulating beverage. Cassina or Black Drink is still prepared 
(1924) by the natives and negroes along the coast wherever the 
source-plant is abundant. Cassina is a bush which grows usually to 
the height of a man's head. In the southern states, it is pruned 
carefully to obtain a hedge of nearly twenty-five feet in height. The 
tough branches and compact growth of the plant recommend it as 
an excellent windbrake. The cassina plant has been used for this 
purpose since 1893. This plant grows naturally and luxuriantly 
on poor, sandy soils over an area of about 40,000 square miles. 

Several years ago, Congress voted an appropriation of $5,000 to 
investigate the possibilities of the cassina plant as the source of a 
national beverage. Dr. George Mitchell carried on research which 
produced very encouraging results. He found that the beverage 
is an efficient reliever of fatigue, and is followed by no ill after- 
effects. The fact that cassina contains only 1% caffeine, which is 
less than coffee and much less than the caffeine-content of tea, indi- 
cates that constant use of the beverage would not be as injurious 
as a similar use of coffee or tea. The low percentage of caffeine 
especially recommends it to individuals who find that the consump- 
tion of coffee or tea produces deleterious effects. 



2o8 COFFEE 

During the summer of 1922, there was established at Mt. Pleasant, 
South Carolina, in cooperation with Mr. Alfred Jouannet, an experi- 
mental commercial factory. Mr. Jouannet's plantation was selected 
because of the fact that he had growing on his place, large cassina 
hedges which afforded ample material easily accessible for the pur- 
pose. About 5,000 lbs. of cassina, of three different kinds, were 
produced by different methods of manufacture, namely Green Cassina, 
Black Cassina, and Cassina Mate. In December, 1922, Mr. W. G. 
Campbell, Acting Chief of the Department of Chemistry, reported 
to the Secretary of Agriculture at Washington, D. C, that an ex- 
cellent beverage could be made from cassina leaves. Laboratory 
investigations have shown that a very delightful beverage, resembling 
tea in many respects, can be made from cassina when the leaves are 
treated by processes similar to those used in curing tea. Preliminary 
reports indicate that the laboratory results can be duplicated on a 
commercial scale, as cassina can be placed on the market at about 
one-fourth the cost of China tea. 

The process of manufacture is simple. The twigs are cut from the 
bushes and hauled to a barn where negro women and girls pick off 
the bulk of the leaves. These leaves are passed through a chopping 
machine and placed in trays for a day to dry. Final desiccation is 
accomplished by oven-treatment. This method of preparation results 
in Black Cassina. The twigs with the remaining leaves are placed in 
a sterilizer and subjected to steam for fifteen minutes. This treat- 
ment causes the leaves to drop off. The leaves are then ground, and 
the resulting product is Green Cassina. The remaining twigs are 
then utilized as fuel. The best cassina beverage, like the best tea, 
is a mixture of the leaves produced by the green and black processes. 

The taste for cassina is easily acquired. Many inveterate tea- and 
coffee-drinkers, who have submitted themselves to the experiment, 
have found no inconvenience by substituting cassina in lieu of their 
customary beverage. Cassina is prepared by boiling the leaves. 
Merely passing hot water over the leaves does not produce a desirable 
drink. It may be drunk with or without cream, and sweetened 
according to the individual taste. Like coffee, it is more of a tonic 
when taken clear. The United States Government investigators 
have produced two delicious soft drinks from the cassina plant. One 
of these beverages is sweet ; the other has a somewhat bitter undertone 



CAFFEINE-YIELDING PLANTS 209 

like beer. These new cold drinks may be retailed for five cents per 
bottle; and present indications suggest their future popularity. About 
thirty gallons of hot cassina were served each day for fourteen days 
during the Charleston (South Carolina) County Fair in 1922. 
Judging from the demand, it is concluded that the beverage has very 
promising commercial possibilities. There were also served from 750 
to 1500 glasses of the carbonated beverages made from cassina, which 
also indicates distinct commercial possibilities. It is reported by 
Mr. J. W. Sale of the U.S. Government Bureau of Chemistry, that 
cassina flavor blends well with other flavors, such as ginger, lemon, 
orange, spearmint, wild cherry, pineapple, caramel color, etc. A 
formula for cassina ice-cream has been developed. This ice-cream 
has a vanilla-like flavor. It was sold in Washington during a recent 
(1923) convention of about sixty thousand people by whom it was 
very favorably received. 

Bibliography: — Bauhin & Cherler Hist. PI. Universalis 3 (1650) 
631. — Binz in Arch. Exp. Path. ii. Pharm. 9 (1878) 50. — Bentley & 
Trimen Med. PI. i (1880) 67.— Grisard & Vanden-Berghe Les Palm. 
Util. et Leurs Allies (1889) 77. — Hale Ilex Cassine, the Aborig. No. 
Amer. Thea. Its Hist. Distrib., & Use among Nat. No. Amer. Ind. 
(U. S. Dept. Agric. Div. Bot. Bull. 14, 1891). — Loesener in Bot. 
Centralbl. No. 6, 47 (1891) 161.— Hale in Beiheft Bot. Centralbl. 3 
(1893) 141. — Lewin & Pouchet Traite Toxicol. (1903) 626, 690. — 
Freeman & Chandler The World's Comm. Prod. (1907) 173, 174. — 
Gray Man. Bot. Flow. PL & Ferns ed. 7 (1908) 554. — Hare, Caspari, 
& Rusby Nat. Stand. Dispens. ed. 2 (1908) 1589. — Hartwich Die 
Menschlich. Genuszm. (1911) 468. — Bailey L. H. Stand. Cycl. Hort. 
3 (1915) 1640.— Rice in Nature Mag. (July 1923) 53.— Haskin in 
Boston Traveler (July 16, 1923). 



APPENDICES 
ETHNOLOGICAL DISCUSSION OF COFFEE 



APPENDIX A 

A PHILOLOGICAL AND BOTANICAL TREATISE OF 

COFFEE 

(Kadu "^ Karwa ^^^ Coffee) 

For coffee, the world is indebted to Africa. The various terms 

applied to this Abyssinian plant, its fruit, its seed, and the beverage 

prepared from these, are exceedingly interesting from the viewpoint 

of the derivation and the philological history of our word "Coffee." 

From the words <^'^ or Bun, the Arabic and Abyssinian name for 

the plant or its seed, and ^>^ or Qahwah, sometimes written 
Kahwah, K'hawah, or Kahwa, which is the Arabic term for wine, 
most of the terms signifying coffee are derived. Thus we have 
cahua, kawa, chauhe, kapi, cave, kava, cafe, cafeier, and coffee; and 
also bouUj bun, ban, ben, bunu, buncha and innumerable derivatives 
from these terms, which I shall list on subsequent pages. 

The literature of the past ages since the eleventh century, when 
coffee was first referred to, contains attempts to explain the use of 
Kahwah by the Arabians and Egyptians to signify this common bev- 
erage. Kahwah is assumed by some authors to have been a corruption 
of Kaffa, the name of an Abyssinian district where the coffee-plant 
is indigenous. If this supposition were true, then cave, cafe, and 
coffee would be remarkably akin to the original name. Throughout 
the early literature, one finds Kahwah customarily applied to the 
beverage and Bun to the plant. In Yemen, Arabia, Bun designates 
the berry. Early Arabic writers used the term Bun by itself or in 
combination. Ancient authors considered it as an Abyssinian medici- 
nal plant; and I infer that the appearance of the Arabic name 
Kahwah indicates the progress in the development of coffee as a bev- 
erage. No author has ever correctly explained the use of Kahwah for 
the coffee-beverage. Previous writers have suggested various reasons 

213 



214 COFFEE 

and explained the association of this word meaning wine as indicative 
of one of two things: first, the abhorrence of religious persons of 
an} thing that savored of alcohol or that tended to exhilarate one's 
spirit; or secondly, it was considered by some authors as the direct 
expression of the circumstance that, when the Arabs first became 
familiar with the coffee-beverage, it was probably distinctly alcoholic 
•and fully deserved the terminology Kahwah. Nevertheless, this was 
purely an assumption, as coffee is not described in any of the ancient 
literary works as being an alcoholic beverage. 

By careful research in regard to the philology of Kahwah, I found 
that the term had been used by the Arabs and by the people of India 
in referring to an atrocious drink in the form of an exceedingly bitter 
and pungent wine which was commonly prepared from some species 
of pepper-plant. A large number of different plants were utilized in 
various localities. But throughout its history, the underlying meaning 
of Kahwah has been bitter or pungent. 

A philological study of the terrn reveals its earliest form in the 
Dravidian languages of Southern India as Kadu (or Kadhu) mean- 
ing fierce, cutting, sharp, or pungent. Later, in Sanskrit one finds 

the form ^^, or Katu meaning pungent, acrid, or sharp in respect 
to flavor; pungent, stimulating, ill-scented, or strongly-scented in 
respect to smell; bitter or caustic in respect to words; and also dis- 
pleasing, disagreeable, fierce, impetuous, or hot in various connec- 
tions. The term Katu alone, in modification or in combination, re- 
fers to a large number of plants all possessing pungent or acrid proper- 
ties. The subsequent list will give an idea of this term in its Sanskrit 
forms and botanical references: 

Katu refers to Michelia Champaca L. ; T?ichosa?ithes dioica Roxb. ; 

and in a few instances, it refers to an improper action. 
Katu-rohini refers to Brassica ramosa Roxb. ex Flem. ; Helleborus 

niger L. (medicinal). 
Katu-kanda refers to Zingiber (fresh ginger root) ; Allium (garlic) ; 

Hyper anther a Moringa Yahl. 
Katu-Kuranja refers to Caesalpinia .BonduceUa L. 
Ka^u-kita or Katukitaka refers to a gnat or mosquito. 
Katti-kvana refers to a species of chicken (Parra Jacana or P. 

Goensis) which makes a sharp or piercing noise. 



APPENDIX A 215 

Katu-granthi refers to Zingiber (dried root) ^ Piper longurn L. 
(root). 

Katu-bhanga refers to Zingiber (dried root). 

Katu-bhadra refers to Zingiber (dried ginger or ginger in general). 

Katu-vija refers to Piper longum L. 

Katu-caturjataka refers to an aggregate of four acid substances as of 
cardamoms; bark and leaves of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees; 
and of Piper nigrum L. 

Katu-cchada refers to a tree with pungent leaves. 

Katu-ja refers to a preparation of acid substances as a kind of drink. 

Katu-tiktika refers to Swertia Chirata Buch-Ham. ex Wall. ; Canna- 
bis sativa L. 

Katu-tumbi refers to a kind of bitter gourd. 

Katu-traya refers to the aggregate of three black substances or spices : 
Ginger, black pepper, and long pepper. 

Katu-pattra refers to Oldenlandia biftora L. (medicinal). 

Katu-pakin refers to a substance producing acrid humors in digestion. 

Katu-vipaka refers to a substance producing acrid humors in digestion. 

Katu-phala refers to Trichosanthes dioica Roxb., a sort of cucumber. 

Katu-manjarika refers to Achyranthes aspera L. 

Katu-moda refers to a certain pungent perfume. 

Katu-rava refers to a frog which makes an unpleasant sound. 

Katu-vartaki refers to a variety of Solanuin. 

Katu-sneha refers to Brassica campestris L. (the mustard seed plant). 

Katutkata refers to Zingiber (ginger as used). 

Katut-kataka refers to Zingiber (dry ginger). 

Katphala refers to a small tree in No. West. Hindustani; the bark 
and seeds are used in medicine and as aromatics; fruit edible and 
called Kayaphal. 

Katv-anga refers to the tree Calosanthes indicum Blume. 

Katuka refers to a combination meaning sharp, bitter, pungent, fierce, 
impetuous, and hot and refers to Trichosanthes dioica Roxb. (a 
fragrant plant) ; Calotropis gigantea Dryand. (the Giant- Swallow- 
wort whose bark and seeds are acrid and bitter and are used to 
dispel worms, for dysentery, etc.) also to indicate Wrightia zeyland- 
ica R. Br.; Brassica campestris L. and Brassica ramosa "^oxh. ex 
Flem. 

Katvi refers to Areca catechu L. ; Hygrophila angustifolia R. Br. 



2l6 



COFFEE 



Dadhi-katukan refers to a bad compound meaning sour, coagulated 
milk; a compound of pungent substances; in some cases, of black 
pepper, long pepper, and dry ginger. 

Katuka-phala refers to a perfume prepared from the berries of the 
plant Kakkola. The inner portion of the berry is waxy and 
aromatic. The scientific name of this plant is unknown. 

Subsequently, in the Hindu languages, one finds the form Karwa 
(or Karhwa) meaning bitter, acrid, sharp, or pungent. The term 
became the source of the various forms of Kahwah such as the Persian 
cahewa; the early Arabic qahwah; and the Turkish kahveh and caheu; 
all of which existed to the West of India. To the East, the innumer- 
able variations of it occurred throughout Polynesia where one finds 
Kawa as the root form meaning bitter, sour, or unpalatable. Its 
many variations in form, meaning, and reference to specific plants, 
may be judged by a study of the following table : 

Forms of Kawa or Kawakawa Occurring in Polynesia 
language form reference 

Samoan 'ava Piper methysticum Forst. ; an intoxicating drink 

made from 'ava ; food ; the beard. 
'dava pungent, sour, hot, scorching. 
'ava'ava to be oppressively hot. 
'avas'ia to be burnt by the sun ; to be poisoned. 
'avdavasitu Piper insectifugum C. DC. ex Sm. ; P. 

latifolium Forst. 
'avapui Zingiber zerumbet Rose, ex Sm. also Zingiber 

officinale Rose. 
'avasa Tephrosia piscatoria Pers. (Used to poison 
fish.) 
Tahitian ava Plant and drink called kava; also for all kinds 

of intoxicating liquors. 
avaava sour, acrid, bitter. 
to-avaava sour, acrid. 
Hawaiian awa bitterness; name of a certain plant and the 
intoxicating beverage prepared therefrom. 
awaawa sour, bitter, sharp, pungent, harsh. 
ho-awaawa bitterness; sourness. 
auahia bitterness; sourness. 



APPENDIX A 217 

Tongan kava name of a root ; a beverage of intoxicating qual- 

ity ; any spirituous liquor ; the beard. 
kakava perspiration. 
Marquesan kava or kaava a root which is chewed as an intoxicant ; 
also used in modern times to refer to tobacco. 
kavahia bitter, sour, sharp. . 
Rarotongan kava sour, sharp, pungent. 

Mangarevan kava acrid, bitter, a variety of taro, the edible root 
of Colocasia antiquorum Schott; also to any shrub 
yielding the liquor kava. 
kava-kava slightly acid taste. 
aka-kava bitter, harsh to taste. 
Paumotan kava disagreeable to take. 

kavakava acid, sharp, bitterness, grief. 
Mangaian kava or cava an intoxicating beverage prepared from 
the root of the kava plant. Fiper methysticum 
Forst. 
Throughout Polynesia, the term Kawu or Kawakawa frequently 
refers to the shrub Piper excelsum Forst. or to Piper methysticum 
Forst. These plants are sacred shrubs which are used in religious 
ceremonies. A branch is often used to strike a boat to remove evil 
spirits; to open a new building with priestly ceremonies; or to per- 
form a sort of baptism. One of these shrubs is often planted by 
the native priest after naming a child. 

In the eastern dialect Motu, kava has the meaning 'to be crazed,' 
and kava-kava signifies folly or a foolish condition. In the dialect 
Aneityum, kava refers to Piper methysticum Forst., from which an 
intoxicating drink is made. 

A survey of the foregoing pages clearly shows that authors since 
the eleventh century have misinterpreted the philology of Kahwah 
and its use to signify our coffee-beverage. The term arose from 
the Dravidlan languages and, as seen below, It has maintained Its 
underlying meaning throughout Its evolution. 

The term originally Implied anything possessing bitter or pungent 
qualities, and came to refer to a very pungent wine which was pre- 
pared from various plants, usually a species of Piper (pepper). Fi- 
nally It was used to signify a drink prepared from acid substances, 
then to a pungent intoxicating drink, and, in some localities, to all 



2i8 COFFEE 

intoxicating liquors. In all cases, the preparation was bitter or pun- 
gent in quality. It was without doubt in reference to these pun- 
gent wines that the Arabians became familiar with the term; and, 
upon acquiring a taste for coffee which was, and still is, prepared by 
them as a thick, black, and bitter beverage, they merely transferred 
to their new preparation the name of their formerly common and 
bitter drink. 

It is significant that the original form Kadu, or any subsequent 
derivative, is fundamentally the term applied to a quality, not a 
specific plant or beverage. Hence, it is natural that it should keep 
pace with the migration of peoples and the tongues associated with or 
influenced by the Dravldlan languages. One finds that the word 
Kahwah of Arabia and the term Kava of Polynesia are closely 
related, having been derived from the same root; and that both refer 
to a bitter or pungent beverage. To sum up : 

Dravldlan term .... Kadu =:fierce, cutting, sharp, 
I pungent. 

Sanskrit term Katu = sharp, acrid, pun- 

I gent. 

Hindu term Karwa = sharp, acrid, bitter, 

pungent. 




Arabic ''Qahwah or Kahwah'' Polynesian ''kawa or Kamakawa,' 



The European languages derived the name "Coifee" from the 
Turkish form Kahveh or Quahwe about 1600. Originating from that 
term, one finds the Italian cajfe; the Spanish, Portuguese, and French 
cafe; the early German Koffee and Coffee and the later German 
Kaffee; the Danish and Swedish Kaffe; the Dutch Koffie; and the 
Russian Kophe, Kophei, or Kofe, and the Polish Kawas. 

English literature of the sixteenth century, including the Early 
Modern or Tudor English, reveals the forms caoua and chaoua. 
The Middle Modern English variations of the next century were 
coffdj caffa^ capha, caphe, cauphe, cohpie, coffi, coffe, coffey, coffy, 
and rarely coffee. The Current English of the eighteenth century 



The foUomng atalogue, conmningfucbDiMQg^. vboft Pkiits, 
from whence they are taf^n ; being not ataD, or ha "npcrfea- 
Iv kmpn: It is therefore mjl eameftl; defired, that all VtiiSti- 
tioners in Phyfick, or other Curious Pcrfons, vobo 
Travel intoth^e Tarts, from whence tbefe Druggs are brought, 
wohU befleafed (fofarto oblidge the Ingeniow of this Inquifitiye 
Ape^ as to procure what Jccount they can learn oftbenty with 
Samples (jf- their Leaves, Flo.wers W Fruit. 



FromtheEj/l-M'>'- 



ftC?"Am monucu m. 

EilmofGilcad.erOpo- 
balUmum. 
fk::^Bde>Kum. 
©aPDcnjamm. 

^CPCabmbac, tr G)lura- 
bine-Wood. 

Camphire. 

Cardamoms. 

Carpobal(amum< 

QunaRoot. 

Cinnamon'Tree. 

Oove-Tree. 
©=^Clovc.Bark-Trec. 
e^^Coflfe. 

' oftus Dulcis. 

Coftiis Amarus. 
§cr*Cubebs. 

9:^Franckincen(e, er Thus. 

GAlangall. 

Galbjnum. 

Gamboge. 

GenfiDgRoot. 

Gum Arabick. 

Gum Lacca^ er Lack. 
S^Gum Sarcocoll. 
g^Gum Sagapenum. 



From the Eaft'IndUf. 



©^•HcrmodaaiUj. 

©!^y Lignum Aloes, cr Agal- 

lochum. 
©^jT* Lignum Afpaltum. 
©3^LignDm Cotabrinum. 
©^Lignum Ntphritioun, 



. Mirobalan. I 
^Mirobalan. Chebalx. 
'Mirobalan. Citritur. 
)Mirobalan. Embticae. 
CMIrobalaa Indc 
• Mjfrrb. 

NoOiMg-Treo 
NuxVoouca. 



©^. 



^X'Opopanax. 

Bladt-Peppcr. 
Long-Pepper. 
§=3*Rhobarb. 

Sanguis Draconb. 
§c^Saunders, White and 
Yellow. 
Schinanth, crSweet- 
Ru(h. 
§3PSpica Nardi Indica, m 
Spikenard. 
Worm-Seed. 
Zedoary. 



From thcWeJi-lffdj^f. 



Balfam Coepevx. 
©OTBalCim Peru, cr Nsturtt 
Bairam. 
Ballam Tolu. 

China- Roof. 
Coofrayerva-Rooc 
9^*Conex Elatheriit if 
Sweet-Bark t»ftrfm» 
Tobacca 
9^'Con. Peru. «rjeluii»>- 
flark. 

^^^^Ebooy-Wood. 
»3l*PalKck.Wood. 

^.^Gum Anime* 
S'^'^Gum Caranna. 
&3rGum Copal. 
Gum Elemi. 
6^^Gnm Seneca. 

©^Logwood. 
Mechoacao. 
Red Saundeii. 

Sarlaparilla. 
Styrax Liquida. 

^_^Tacamaha& 
w^^ rramboon-Bark. 
Vanillocs. 



N. "B. Specimens or Samplcs-of any of tbcfe Druggs wiH be 
very Acceptable; but mod Efpecially thofe, to whom 
there is this Mark [©3*] prefixed, theytcing as yet altogether 
unbown; therefore CompIeatSpedmcns of them, iiis^. S^j;^. 
l^/f/ of their I««/w, Flowers iniFrm, arcmoft ParticuUrlv 
Defircd ^ 

Urndtn^ Prihtcd for J$mes Fttiver, Apothecary and HcAaliftrlioa 



99^. 



PLATE 72 



The above photograph shows a seventeenth century form 

of the word coffee and also indicates that, at this 

period in England, it was known as a drug. 

From a rare 'volume in the possession 
of Prof. Oakes Ames, F.L.S. 
219 



220 COFFEE 

brought about its final spelling through caufee and cojfe to our 
present form coffee. It is apparent that these European forms are 
adaptations of the Arabic term ^"^^ or qahwah which is the 
name of the infusion and in Turkish is pronounced Kahveh. The 
''o'^ of European derivatives of the word represents the earlier "au^ 
from the Arabic ''ahw'' or ''ahv/' ^ 

Philological Bibliography for *^^ or Qahwah: — D'Herbelot Bi- 
bliotheque Orientale i (i777) 461. — Thompson Eng. and Urdu (or 
Oordoo) School Diet. ed. 3 (1841) 22. — Forbes Diet. Hindustani-Eng. 
and Eng.-Hind. part 2 (1848) 25. — Calcutta School-Bk. Soc. Press. 
Romanized School Diet. Eng. Urdu ed. 7 (1867) 14. — ^Williams San- 
skrit-Eng. Diet. (1872) 196. — Badger Eng.-Arab. Lexicon (1881) 146. 
— ^Tregear Maori-Polynesian Compar. Diet. (1891) 139, 140. — Clough 
Sinhalese-Eng. Diet. (1892). — Murray Oxford Diet. 2 (1893) 589, 
590. — Yule and Burnell Hobson-Jobson Glossary of Colloq, and 
Anglo-Ind. Words and Phrases and Kindred Terms. Etymological, Hist., 
Geograph. and Discursive (1903) 232. 

Eastern Dialect Terms Synonymous with Coffee 

(Native and foreign introductions) 

Arabic: — Bun, buna, bon, ban, bunnu. 

Kahwah, kahwa, kuehwa, cahve, cahue, cahu, cachua, caova, coava, 

coave, cauwa, coho, caoua, chaube, chaoua, choava, kaffeh, kaffe, 

kavee, kavhi, kahue, caffe, coffey, coffe, coffi, cafier, caffeyer, caf- 

feyer d'Arabie, Caffayer arabique. 
Egyptian: — Elkarie (or El Kari), elearco, and many of the Arabic 

terms. 
African (various regions) : — Koffij. 

African (Golungo Alto region) : — Murianbambe or Muria Nbambe. 
Persian : — Bun, bunna, bunco, bunnu. 

Qahva, kahwa, kahveh (also Turkish), tochem-keweh, cahwa, 

cahewa. 

Hindustani: — Bun, bun. Kahwah, kawa, coffi. 

^ In addition to the subject in hand, it is interesting to note the influence 
of the Hindu language throughout Polynesia in the East, and Arabia to the West 
of India. It is curious that I am unable to find the term in any form in Malaya. 
I venture to suggest that this fact may be an additional unit of evidence to help 
substantiate the theory that the ancestors of the Malayan people did not make 
their appearance in that region of the world until a later period than the 
Polynesians. 



APPENDIX A 221 

Bengali : — Kapi, kava, kaoa, kuwa, caphee. 

Gujerah: — Bund. Cappi. 

Bombay Presidency: — Bun, bund. Kawa, kahwa, caphi, caffi. 

Marathi: — Bun, bund. Kaphi, kan. 

Tamul: — Kapf-kottai, kapi, kopee, coppy-cottay, capie-cottay, capi. 

Teloogoo : — Kapi-vittulu, capi. 

Canarese: — Kaphi, kapi-bija, bonda-bija. 

Burmese: — Kahpee, ka-pwot, kaphi-si. 

Singhalese (or Cynghalese) : — Kopi-atta, copi-cotta, kopi. 

Term common in Southern India: — Kuooa. 

Javanese : — Koppi. 

Malayan : — Kuppu, kapi. 

Guam : — Kafe. 

Philippine I. (Mindanao, Lolo) : — Kahaua. 

The majority of these terms are derived from one of two roots: 
bun^ usually referring to the berry, and kahwah, referring to the 
roasted and ground fruit or the infusion prepared from it.^ 

Bibliography for Eastern Tropical Dialect Terms Signifying Coffee: — 
Rauwolff Raisz in die Morgenlander (1582) 102. — Noureddeen 
Mohammed Abdullah Shirazy (transl. by Francis Gladin) Ulfaz 
Udwiyeh; or the Mat. Med. in Arabic, Persian, and Hindevy languages 
(1793) 545- — Ainslie Mat. Med. Hindoostan (1813) 11, 223. — Roxb. 
Hort. Bengal. (1814) 15. — Moon Cat. Indig. and Exot. PI. Ceylon 
(1824) 385. — Piddington Eng. Index PI. Ind. (1832) 162. — Wight Ic. 
PI. Ind. Or. I (1840) 53.— Speede Ind. Handb. Gard. ed. 2 (1842).— 
Hasskari Cat. Hort. Bogoriensis (1844) 374. — Hasskari Aanteekenigen 
over Het Nut door de bewoners van Java aan eeinige Planten van 
Eiland toegeschreven (1845) 658. — Voigt Hort. Suburb. Calcutt. (1845) 
392. — Honigberger Thirty-five Yrs. in the East (1852) 385. — Waring 
Manual Pract. Therapeut. (1854) 702. — Jameson Rep. Bot. Gard. 
Gov't. No. West. Prov. (1855) 117. — Faulkner Diet. Comm. Terms 
w. Synon. in various languages (1856) 39. — Jesudasen List of Drugs 
exhibited by Jesudasen, Offic. and Descript. Cat. Madras 1857 (1857) 
144.— Drury Useful PL Ind. (1858) 153.— Birdwood Cat. Econ. Prod. 
Presid. Bombay (1862) 207. — Brown Handb. Trees, Shrubs and Herb. 
PL Madras Agri.-Hort. Soc. Gard. (1862) 86.— Watson Index Nat. 
and Scient. Names Ind. and Other East. Econ. PL and PL Prod. (1866). 
—Watt Diet. Econ. Prod. Ind. 2 (1889) 460.— Dey Indig. Drugs Ind. 
ed. 2 (1896) 93.— Higgens Prelim. List. Vernac. Names Trees, Shrubs, 
and Woody Climbers Madras Presid. (1901) 47. — Van Wijk Diet. 
PL Names i (1911) 346. 

^Bun is used for Phaseolus angustifolius in Jameson Rep. Bot. Gard. Gov't. 
North- West. Prov. (1855) 117. 



APPENDIX B 
THE HISTORY OF COFFEE-HOUSES 

Ever since the advent of the coffee-beverage, it has become in- 
creasingly the favorite drink of restricted districts and then of 
whole countries. Now its use has spread throughout the entire world. 
The introduction and expansion of its use has been greatly stimulated 
through the agencies of the public gathering places known as coffee- 
houses. Their development has been picturesque and of historical 
importance. Coffee-houses have been the subject of hostile attacks 
by the leaders of the Mahometan religion. These establishments 
have had a noteworthy influence on the literature of France. Ex- 
cessive taxation and even the prohibition of coffee-houses was at- 
tempted by the English government during the latter half of the 
seventeenth century. The early American coifee-houses fostered the 
spirit of Yankee patriots. Present day coffee-houses are public 
gathering places where topics of general interest are discussed. 

Arabia : 

In Arabia, coffee-houses were established in the fifteenth century 
when cofFee, without sugar or milk, became the common beverage of 
all classes. Travelers have always held in their memories the 
"kahwahs,'' or "Coffee-Rooms," so intimately associated with Arabian 
hospitalit}. In these coffee-rooms, spread with mats and oriental 
luxuries, the Arabs gather to drink coffee and to find entertainment. 

In serving coffee to a guest at the more pretentious coffee-houses, 
the ancient custom still prevails of washing and perfuming the hands 
after eating before indulging in coffee. At the present time, some 
coffee-houses are furnished with rugs, divans, and cushions. Others 
are devoid of display with the exception of the native costumes of 
the patrons. In all kahwahs, the coffee is always served black and 
frequently with the addition of some aromatic seed. 

222 



APPENDIX B 223 

Egypt : 

In Egypt, coffee became the common beverage about 1500. About 
this time, public coffee-houses were established throughout the coun- 
try. The beverage so captivated the people that they deserted the 
Mosques for the coffee-houses w^here the delicious drink and pleasant 
associations w^ere enjoyed. The chief priests and rulers issued edicts 
prohibiting the use of coffee, but without avail. The coffee-houses 
still continue in a flourishing state. 

Persia and Syria : 

In Persia and Syria, the coffee-houses were introduced during the 
sixteenth century. At the present time, they are characteristic es- 
tablishments throughout this part of the world. They have always 
served as public gathering places for the idle, and as a retreat where 
merchants enjoyed relaxation. They provided an opportunity for 
politicians to express their views, a place for poets to recite their 
verses, and afforded Mollahs an audience for their sermons. Here, 
as in Egypt, festive gatherings such as characterized coffee-houses 
were incompatible with the Mahometan religion ; and one finds that 
the coffee-houses were prohibited at various periods in the history of 
the country, but without avail. 

Turkey: 

In Turkey, the type of coffee-house found in Aleppo, such as 
Russell described,^ was characteristic of Mecca, Medina, Cairo, 
Damascus, and Constantinople. They were the most noticeable 
establishments of the city. They were large and beautifully furnished 
with matted platforms and benches. Many had a fountain in the 
center and a gallery for musicians. Large windows were situated 
so that pedestrians could readily observe everything that was happen- 
ing within. The patrons sat about on small, low, wicker stools. In 
the summer months, they could be seen before the open door. This 
motley assembly in eastern garb and with eastern manners, variously 
placed in picturesque attitudes, composed a very amusing and interest- 
ing scene for a traveler. The early coffee-houses of Aleppo were 
frequented by all persons excepting those who belonged to the first 
rank of society. 

* Russell Nat. Hist. Aleppo i (1794) 46-150. 



224 COFFEE 

Customers were entertained by musicians, a puppet show, or a 
story-teller. The frequenters, as they sat about drinking coffee, 
voluntarily contributed to defray expenses. The musical programme 
was often added to by some volunteer performer. The puppet 
shows involved a feeble attempt toward dramatic fable, but the 
dialogue was very frequently indecent. The Turks never gambled 
for money and were unacquainted with cards, as all gaming was pro- 
hibited by the KoraUo They played, however, a game involving 
the use of coffee-cups of which a number were placed upon a large 
tray and a ring hidden under one of them. Whoever guessed the 
location of the ring had the right to blacken the faces of the losers, 
to expose them in fool-caps to the derision of the company, and to add 
any other insult which he might desire. They sometimes risked a 
cup of coffee to settle disputes. 

Coffee-houses were opened in 1554 in Constantinople by Schems 
of Damascus and by Heken of Aleppo. At the present day, some are 
furnished with costly eastern divans, cushions of embroidered velvet, 
and prayer rugs of many patterns. During the reign of the Sultan 
Amuret III, the coffee-houses were closed on the pretext that they 
were places of distributing foods which were declared by Allah to 
be unfit for human diet; but in reality, it was because of the dimin- 
ishing attendance at the Mosques in favor of the coffee-rooms. 
Various governors have levied excessive taxes on coffee-houses, but all 
prohibition has been in vain. Turkey to-day supports thousands of 
coffee-houses, some bedecked in splendor, others very small and plain, 
but all are permeated with the fragrance of their greatly-loved, bitter, 
and black beverage. With the appearance of Christians in Turkey, 
the use of sugar in coffee was introduced, but it is seldom indulged 
in by the Turks themselves. 

Russia : 

Coffee-houses have existed in the cities of Southern Russia since 
their original introduction about 1700; but they have never gained 
there the prominence attained in Turkey. Information, indicative 
of the demand for coffee in Russia, has recently (in 1922) come to 
me from Moscow, which says that even during this post-war scarcity 
of food and deplorable low value of Russian currency, which causes 



APPENDIX B 225 

bare necessities to be hardly purchasable, the people pay 1,250,000 
Rubles for a cup of coifee. 

Greece : 

Since the introduction of coffee-houses into Greece, they have been 
the common gathering places for men of all classes. These coffee- 
houses have always been associated with political discussions. The 
patrons of certain coffee-houses are decidedly in favor of conservative 
viewpoints; while the patrons of others maintain very radical ideas. 
It is possible to ascertain in a very short time what the sentiment 
of a coffee-house is; and, if one finds himself opposed to this senti- 
ment, it may be well for him to change coffee-houses in order to secure 
greater peace and harmony. 

The Greeks have imitated the customs of the Turkish coffee- 
house. One finds many of the Turkish terms used by the Greeks 
themselves. The patrons call for their Solin {(to\vp aoXwes) 
or Turkish Water Pipe, which they own individually and in 
the ornamentation of which they often take great pride. Turkish 
pastry is obtainable in the Greek coffee-houses. In the modern 
coffee-houses, wines and beers are on sale, but they are much less 
frequently ordered than black coffee. 

Italy : 

In Italy in 1625, liquid coffee was first sold in Rome. Coffee- 
houses have existed in the cities of Italy since the middle of the 
seventeenth century, but are not so typical and characteristic of the 
people and the country as throughout the countries bordering on 
the eastern part of the Mediterranean Sea. 

France : 

Although coffee was brought into France from Constantinople as 
early as 1664 by De la Haye, a Frenchman, and by Pietro della 
Valle, a Venetian, it was not until 1671 that coffee-houses were estab- 
lished. The first one was opened in Marseilles. It became a gather- 
ing place for merchants to smoke, and to discuss business and political 
conditions. In the following year, the first coffee-house in Paris 
was opened by an Armenian named Pascal. In 1675, a Frenchman, 
Ettienne d'Alep, opened an Oriental Coffee-House in the Rue des 
Italiennes. These coffee-houses, where black coffee and side dishes 



226 COFFEE 

of nougat and other oriental pastries were served, became the first 
Cafes in history. The word "Cafe" has been applied to restaurants, 
coffee-houses, and cabarets. These are modern applications of the 
term. Originally, it was distinctly and wholly a coffee-house where 
scientific and political men gathered with all other classes for dis- 
cussion and where literary men read their compositions aloud. Cafes 
immediately flourished and were supported by the enthusiasm of the 
French for the new beverage. The Cafes soon became rivals of the 
cabarets. By 1690, over three hundred Cafes existed in Paris alone. 
In 1689, Francois Procope established the Cafe Procope near 
the theatre of the Comedie Frangaise. This cafe became the most 
famous of all Parisian coffee-houses. To the Cafe Procope, Voltaire 
came to sip his black coffee and to give utterance to his philosophy. 
Here, at the age of eighty-four, this master dramatist sought in his 
coffee a constant mental stimulant. In this Cafe Procope, the sinister 
figures of the French Revolution, such as Danton, Marat, and Robes- 
pierre, harangued the crowds and in passionate appeal urged them 
on to a period of bloodshed. Other striking personalities may be 
visualized in connection with the Cafe. Balzac, the great novelist, 
was an inveterate coffee-drinker. When he was poor and lived in an 
attic, he made coffee himself. When he could afford it, the best 
chef in Paris made it for him. M. Alfred de Musset, Hugo, Zola, 
Bernhardt, Clemenceau, great thinkers, many famous musicians, 
writers, and players, all found inspiration and solace in coffee as it 
cheered, soothed, and sustained them. 

Holland : 

In 1666, the first coffee-house opened in Amsterdam. Coffee- 
houses have existed since that period. The love of the people of 
Holland for coffee may be judged when one realizes that Holland 
has the greatest per capita consumption of coffee among the nations 
of the world. 

Germany and Austria: 

In Germany and Austria, although coffee-houses have existed 
since their establishment in 1686, they have never been so character- 
istic of the national life as the beer-gardens. The following list 
indicates the date of the establishment of the first coffee-house in the 
given city: 



APPENDIX B 227 

Niirnberg, Regensburg, and Prag 1686 

Hamburg 1687 

Leipzig 1694 

Danzig and Wittenberg 1700 

Stuttgart 1712 

Augsburg 1 7 1 3 

Berlin 1721 

Reutlingen 1 7^0 

England: 

In England, in 1651, a score and one years prior to the establish- 
ment of coffee-houses in Paris, liquid coffee was sold at Sultaness 
Head, a "Cophee" house in London. Soon afterward, Pasqua Rossie, 
the Greek servant of an English merchant named Daniel Edwards, 
opened a coffee-tent on St. Michael's Alley. By 1657, many coffee- 
houses existed in London and an excise tax of eight pence per gallon 
was levied. In 1660, coffee appeared on the statute books and a 
duty of four pence per gallon was levied. Three years later, a law 
was passed which required coffee-houses to be licensed. 

During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the coffee-houses 
reached their height of popularity in England and were intimately 
associated with the English history of those periods. Here the 
geniuses of the time mingled and discussed art, science, literature, 
philosophy, and political conditions. Samuel Pepys, for example, 
wrote in his diary for February 3, 1663/4: ''In Covent Garden to- 
night, going to fetch home my wife, I stopped at the great Coffee- 
house there [Will's Coffee-house], where I never was before: where 
[were] Dryden, the poet I knew at Cambridge, and all the wits of 
the town, and Harris the player, and Mr. Hoole of our college. And 
... it will be good coming thither, for there, I perceive, is very 
witty and pleasant discourse." A similar picture is presented in the 
play Tarugo's Wiles by St. Serfe, acted at the Lincoln's Inn Fields 
theatre, London, in 1668. Its scene is "a Coffee-House, where is 
presented a mixture of all kinds of people." In Act III, one throws 
"a dish of coffee" in another's face, ''and so they fight." With the 
opening of the eighteenth century, coffee-houses had become firmly 
established as places of fashionable assemblage: Addison's Spectator 
for March i, 171 1, says: "There is no place of general resort wherein 
I do not often make my appearance: sometimes I am seen thrusting 
my head into a round of politicians at Will's. . . . Sometimes I 




THB OBOWN COFFEE HOUSE (Site of FldoUty Truat Buildlag) 



PLATE 73: THE CROWN COFFEE-HOUSE, BOSTON 



228 






JMrnM 










229 



230 COFFEE 

smoke a pipe at Child's. ... I appear on Sunday nights at St. 
James's Coffee-House. . . . My face is likewise very well known 
at the Grecian [and] the Cocoa-Tree." 

The welcome accorded, however, to coffee and to coffee-houses had 
not been universal. Cromwell had attempted to check the coffee- 
trade; but his attempt had resulted only in wide-spread smuggling. 
In 1675, Charles II temporarily suppressed three thousand coffee- 
houses by a royal proclamation against them as "Seminaries of Sedi- 
tion." It was true that unrest and even treason were nurtured there 
by politicians who wished to overthrow the government. The procla- 
mation resulted in such turmoil that annulment of the edict was 
necessary within a few days. 

Gradually, however, the English coffee-houses changed in character. 
The Cheshire Cheese, one of the most famous English coffee-houses, 
emerged from a coffee-house of the true type to the inn-form of a 
public gathering place. The custom of serving drinks other than 
coffee, in these coffee-house-inn establishments, resulted in their loss 
of favor among temperate people. This was the course of evolu- 
tion of the great majority of the early English coffee-houses. To-day, 
one finds but few typical coffee-houses in England. 

United States: 

Pre-revolutionary days saw the advent of coffee-houses in the 
United States. In New Orleans, the custom of coffee-houses was 
learned from Paris. New Orleans was the only American city 
where the true type of coffee-house existed. The coffee-houses of 
Virginia, New York, Massachusetts, and other sections of the 
original thirteen colonies, were naturally fashioned after the English 
prototype; and, as in England, these half-coffee-house half-tavern 
establishments were closely associated with the history of the period. 
The first coffee-house in New York was Burn's, which w^as north- 
west of Bowling Green. The place was a favorite haunt for the 
enemies of the oppression practised by the government of George 
the Third. 

During the winter of 1 923-1 924, I visited a large number of 
coffee-houses in New York City. The so-called 'Coffee-houses' about 
Times Square are semi-lunch rooms. The Greenwich Village dis- 
trict, however, can boast of numerous coffee-houses of the pure type, 




PLATE 75: THE ROYAL EXCHANGE TAVERN, BOSTON 

(Merchants Bank site, State Street) 

The tall white building, mail coach just leaving. 



231 




232 



APPENDIX B 233 

namely, places where only coffee (or tea) and cakes are served. 
These coffee-rooms are frequented by professional men, theatrical 
people, Villagers,' students, and visitors. The patrons are served 
coffee in curiously-shaped coffee-pots. The frequenters of such 
coffee-rooms sit about playing cards, chatting, or reading before the 
fire-place. Indeed, they furnish a very pleasant gathering place to 
pass an hour or two in an inviting and home-like atmosphere where 
one may sit quietly and read or enter into the conversation which 
sometimes waxes warm in argument. 

Boston had numerous coffee-houses during the days of the Revolu- 
tion. Among the most famous was the British Coffee-house at 66 
State Street, which served as headquarters for Loyalists; but later, 
owing to the growing political schism among its patrons, it became 
the American Coffee-house. The Bunch of Grapes, located at the 
southeast corner of State and Kilby Streets, was decidedly Whig in 
sympathies. It was here that Otis, in attempting to pull a Tory 
nose, received such a brutal beating as ultimately to cause the loss 
of his reason. The Crown Coffee-house at the head of Clark's 
Wharf on the north side of State Street (on the present site of 
the Fidelity Trust Co.), the North End Coffee-house opposite the 
head of Hancock's Wharf on the northwest side of North Street, the 
Exchange Coffee-house in Congress Square, and the Royal Exchange 
on State Street, were among the famous coffee-houses of Boston.^ 
These coffee-houses were liberally patronized by both Whigs and 
Tories. In some of these Coffee-house-Tavern hostelries, the British 
sympathizers gathered and drank toasts to King George III. In 
others, Yankee rebels assembled. At the Green Dragon, which was 
also known as Freemason's Arm, such adventurous and ardent pa- 
triots as Otis, Joseph Warren, John Adams, Samuel Adams, Cushing, 
Pitts, Molyneux, and Paul Revere, met nightly to drink coffee and 
to discuss public affairs. An historical tablet at 80-86 Union Street, 
Boston, still marks the location of this famous coffee-house. 

Not until comparatively recent years, however, did the pure type 
of coffee-house invade the cities of the eastern United States. Their 
establishment has been coincident with the Greek and Armenian 

^ The illustrations of early Coffee-houses presented here were photographed 
from Old Boston Taverns and Tavern Clubs by Samuel Adams Drake. Pub- 
lished in 1 91 7 by W. A. Butterfield, Boston, Mass. 



234 COFFEE 

immigration. To-day, one finds coffee-houses flourishing in the 
Greek settlements of our metropolitan centers and in some of our 
smaller manufacturing cities. The main street of the Greek Quarter 
of Nashua, New Hampshire, has seven coffee-houses of the true type. 
Here, Greeks and a sprinkling of Americans spend the evenings 
sipping the black Turkish coffee, eating bits of pastry, and smoking 
the large and ornate water-pipes or Solines {uoKvves) . During the 
summer of 1922, I visited numerous coffee-houses in Manchester 
and Nashua, New Hampshire ; and in Haverhill, Cambridge, and 
Boston, Massachusetts. Those in Nashua seem to be of the best type. 
I found them to be very informal places where men of all classes sit 
about — usually with their hats on — to drink coffee, to smoke, to play 
cards, and to discuss the present-day topics of the world. 

It is of considerable interest to one who is foreign to the environ- 
ment of a coffee-house, to see men industriously drawing (inhaling) 
on their water-pipes without producing the slightest smoke. One 
soon discovers that the color of the smoke is removed during its 
passage through the water, owing to the precipitation of the dispersed 
phase by water, so that only a delightfully cool and colorless gas 
reaches the mouth. After the water becomes saturated with smoke, 
as it does in the course of tw^o to three hours, some normal smoke is 
emitted. 

Although non-alcoholic beverages are purchasable, they are rarely 
served. I found the pastry menu of the coffee-houses to consist 
mainly of "Vpiyovov, which is a preparation of honey and almonds; 
Xoupa^tTTtes, which tastes like a very dry cooky covered with powdered 
sugar; Aou/cou/z, which is Turkish paste, usually red, covered with 
powdered sugar, in size a one-inch cube, and in taste and appearance 
similar to a bit of compressed jelly; and M7ra/<Xa|8a, which is a very 
palatable although excessively sweet concoction of layer pastry and 
almonds. The entire preparation is thoroughly permeated with 
honey by a process of soaking in honey when made. One inserts a 
fork (oyster-fork type) in the center of this lozenge-shaped pastry, 
which is about one-half inch on each side; and, holding it in this 
manner, one bites off portions at intervals during the conversation. 

The Greek coffee-houses are as distinctly Royal or Republican in 
regard to the modern Greek government as the early American 




PLATE 11 

Coffee Urn, Used in the Green Dragon Tavern, now in the possession 
of the Bostonian Society. 



235 



236 COFFEE 

coffee-houses were Whig or Tory. In coffee-houses with Royal 
sympathies, one finds the photographs of the Royal family. On the 
walls of coffee-houses with Republican sympathies, one finds the 
pictures of eminent Republicans. In all Greek coffee-houses, one sees 
pictures of Greek battle-ships, usually in the process of sinking a 
Turkish warship, and copies of paintings which depict the historical 
5».nd intellectual attainments of the Golden Age of Greece. 

There are several coffee-houses in the Central Square region of 
Cambridge, Massachusetts, not of the true type but existing in com- 
bination with public pool-rooms. Consequently, they have a less 
desirable trade and environment than those of Nashua, New Hamp- 
shire, and some other manufacturing centers. I have visited the 
following Cambridge establishments: EWeviKov Kappeveiov Kat 
ApL(TTepLov TO Evoais at 792 Main Street ; Kappeveiov llevevais at 769 
Main Street; and EWeviKov Xevodox^tov to Kappeveiov EXXas at 502 
Massachusetts Avenue. I found them less popular than the pool- 
rooms notwithstanding the fact that they provided a place for dis- 
cussion as in coffee-houses of the pure type. 

In Boston, one still finds coffee-houses of the pure type. At 36 
Kneeland Street, one sees the sign: 

EWeviKov Kappeveiov 
H KcovaTavTivoviro^is* 



INDEX 



INDEX 



Abeokuta Coffee, 78 

Adulterants (other than vegetable 
products), 140; common and sci- 
entific names, 136-140 

Adulteration and Substitution, 130- 
155; bibliography, 151, 156 

Africanischer Nuszbohnen Kaffee, 

135 . 
After Dinner Coffee, 182 
Ahuachapam Coffee, 112 
Allerwelts Kaffee, 135 
Almond Coffee, 135 
Amarillo Coffee, 58 
Amazona Africana, 68 
Arabian Coffee, 34, 114; see also 

Cojfea arabica, 32 
Astragalus boeticus, 135, 137 
Australian Coffees, 118 
Ayer's Hygienic Substitute for Coffee, 

134 

Badiana, 37 
Badianindi, 37 
Bagnio, 37 
Bahia Coffee, m 
Barbados Coffee, 116 
Bayrischer Kaffee, 135 
Beta vulgaris, 165 
Black Coffee, 182 
Blue Mountain Coffee, 34, 50, 116 
Bogota Coffee, iii 

Bogus Coffee, preparations in U. S., 
131; in France, 132; in England, 

132-133 

Bolivian Coffee, 112 

Botanical Sources of Coffee Adulter- 
ants and Substitutes, 136-140 

Botucatu Coffee, 58 

Bourbon Santos Coffee, in 

Brazilian Chocolate, 195 

Brazilian Coffee, 50, in 

Brazilian Holly, 201 

Brazilian Tea, 201 

Bucaramanga Coffee, in 

Bukoba Coffee, 54 

Bun, 220 

Buna, 35 

Bush Coffee, 30 



Cacouleh, 37 

Cafe a la creme, 182; au lait, 182; 
batard, 66; demi-tasse, 182; de 
Rheims, 135; marron, 6S\ noir, 
182 

Caffeine-extraction, 174, 185; amount 
per cup of coffee beverage, 185; 
effect, 41-43, 185-1^6 

Caffeine-yielding Plants of the 
World (indicating botanical spe- 
cies, family, distribution maps, 
photographs, part used, caffeine- 
percentage ) , 1 87-209 

Caffeyer de Bourbon, 66 

Cao'va, 35 

Capotinea Coffee, in 

Carabaya Coffee, 112 

Caracas Coffee, 112 

Caracolillo Coffee, 113 

Cardamom, 37 

Carnauba Palm, 195 

Cassia occidentalis, 66, 135; sophora, 

135 

Cassina, 203 ; use in U. S., 203-209 

Catha edulis, 36 

Caupalican Coffee, 112 

Cayenne Coffee, 118 

Celastrus edulis, 36 

Central American Coffees, 112 

Ceylon and Indian Coffees, 114 

Ceylon-Mocha, 114 

Chanchamayo Coffee, 112 

Charcoal, 38 

Chato Coffee, 34 

Chaube, 35, 220 

Chemistry of Coffee (with bibliog- 
raphy), 157-181 

Chicory, 132, 142, 144, 151 

Chirinda Coffee, loo 

Chocolate, 191, 193 

Choquisongo Coffee, 112 

Chronological coffee chart, Plate 44, 
facing p. 106 

Cinnamon, 37 

Clark's Phosphi Cereal Nervine Cof- 
fee, 134 

Cloves, 37 

Coal, 38 



239 



240 



INDEX 



Coatepec Coffee, 113 
Cocoa, 191, 193 
Coffe, 36, 218-220 

Cojfea, bibliography, Prelinnaean, 8 ; 
economic and cultural, 8-10; 
common name, 5 ; economic spe- 
cies, 5 ; generic description, 3 ; 
geographical distribution, 5 ; his- 
tory, 5-8 ; indigenous geographi- 
cal distribution of economic spe- 
cies, 109 ; key to economic spe- 
cies, II ; microscopic characters of 
seed, 5; species, 5; synonymy, 5 
Cojfea angustifolia, 54 
Cojfea arahica, 13, 15, 25, 32-59, 
66, 90, 95; bibliography, 43, 45; 
common names and dialect 
terms, 34; diagnostic characters, 
34; economic and cultural ref- 
erences, 45, 48 ; geographical dis- 
tribution, 34; history, 35; Pre- 
linnaean references, 43 ; species 
description, synonymy, 32, 34; 
use (wood, leaf, pulp, oil, in 
medicine), 39-41; key to eco- 
nomic varieties, 48, 50 
Cojfea arahica amarella, 50, 58 

angustifolia, 48, 54, 55 

Hiimhlotiana, 50, 58 

intermedia, 50, 56 

leucocarpa, 50, 59 

maragogipe, 48, 50 

rhachiformis, 50, 56 

straminea, 50, 54 

sttihlmannii, 50, 54 

(3, 66 
Cojfea bengalensis, 12, 19, 22-27; 
bibliography, 25 ; common name, 
25 ; diagnostic characters, 25 ; 
economic and cultural refer- 
ences, 27 ; geographical distri- 
bution, 25; history, 25; species 
description, 22; synonymy, 25; 
use, 25 
Cojfea canep/iora, 13, 15, 72; bibli- 
ography, 75; diagnostic charac- 
ters, 74; economic and cultural 
references, 75; geographical dis- 
tribution, 74; history, 74; species 
description, 72; use, 75; vari- 
eties, 75 
Cojfea canephora Hiernii, 75 

Hinatiltii, 75 

kouilouensis, 75; subvarieties jia- 
'vescens, grisea, latifolia, 76 

muniensis, 75 



Coffea canephora — continued 
oligoneura, 75 
opaca, 75 
sankuruensis, 75 
Trillesii, 75 
Wildemannii, 75 
Coffea congensis, 13, 15, 59; bibli- 
ography, 60; diagnostic charac- 
ters, 60; economic and cultural 
references, 62; geographical dis- 
tribution, 60; history, 60; spe- 
cies description, 60; use, 60 
Cojfea congensis subsessilis, 62 

Chalotii, 64 
Cojfea densiflora, 105 
Cojfea excelsa, 14, 15, 93; bibliogra- 
phy, 95; common name, 93; di- 
agnostic characters, 93 ; economic 
and cultural references, 95; geo- 
graphical distribution, 93 ; his- 
<^ory) 93 ; species description, 93 ; 
use, 95 
Cojfea fragrans, 12, 17, 25; bibliog- 
raphy, 19; diagnostic characters, 
17; economic and cultural refer- 
ences, 19; geographical distribu- 
tion, 19; history, 19; species 
description, 17; synonymy, 19; 
use, 19 
Cojfea Ilorsfieldiana, 25 
Cojfea Jliimhlotiana, 58 
Cojfea Ibo, 12, 15, 28; bibliography, 
29; common name, 28; diagnos- 
tic characters, 28 ; economic and 
cultural references, 29; geo- 
graphical distribution, 29; his- 
tory, 29; species description, 28; 
use, 29 
Coffea Jenkinsii, 14, 97, m; bibli- 
ography, 97; diagnostic charac- 
ters, 97; economic and cultural 
references, 97; geographical dis- 
tribution, 97; species descrip- 
tion, 97 ; use, 97, III 
Cojfea khasiana, 14, 97, 103 ; bibli- 
ography, 105; diagnostic char- 
acters, 103 ; economic and cul- 
tural references, 105; geographi- 
cal distribution, 105 ; history, 
105 ; species description, 103 ; 
synonymy, 105 ; use, 105 
Coffea Latirentii, 90 
Coffea laurifolis, 34 
Coffea liberica, 13, 30, 76-90; bibli- 
ography, 83, 88, 90; common 
name, 78 ; diagnostic characters, 



INDEX 



241 



78; economic and cultural refer- 
ences, 88 ; geographical distribu- 
tion, 78; history, 79; species de- 
scription, 76 ; synonymy, 78 ; use, 
83, 92, 109, 113, 130 

Cojfea ligustroides, 14, 100, 109 ; bib- 
liography, 103 ; common name, 
100; diagnostic characters, 100; 
geographical distribution, 100; 
history, 100; species description, 
100; use, 103 

Cojfea mauritiana, 13, 15, 64; bibli- 
ography, 66; common name, 66; 
diagnostic characters, 66; eco- 
nomic and cultural references, 
68 ; geographical distribution, 
66] history, 66; species descrip- 
tion, 64; synonymy, 66; use, 66 

Coffea moka, 34 

Cojfea mozambicana, 27 

Cojfea racemosa, 12, 27, 28 ; bibliog- 
raphy, 27; diagnostic characters, 
27 ; economic and cultural refer- 
ences, 28 ; geographical distribu- 
tion, 27 ; history, 27 ; species de- 
scription, 27 ; synonymy, 27 ; use, 
27 

Coffea ramosa, 27 

Cojfea rhachiformis, 56 

Cojfea robusta, 14, 15, 90; bibliogra- 
phy, 92; common names, 92; 
diagnostic characters, 90; eco- 
nomic and cultural references, 
93 > geographical distribution, 
92; historv', 92; species descrip- 
tion, 90; synonymy, 90; use, 92 

Coffea salici folia, 97 

Coffea stenophylla, 12, 15, 29; bibli- 
ography, 32; common name, 30; 
diagnostic characters, 30; eco- 
nomic and cultural references, 
32; geographical distribution, 
30; history, 30; species descrip- 
tion, 29; synonymy, 30; use, 32, 
72, 90 

Coffea sundana, 54 

Coffea S^-ynnertonii, 13, 15, 70; bib- 
liography, 72 ; common name, 
72; diagnostic characters, 70; 
geographical distribution, 72; 
history, 72; species description, 
70; use, 72 

Coffea syl'vestris, 66 
Coffea travancorensis, 12, 15, 19; 
bibliography, 22; common name, 
22; diagnostic characters, 19; 



economic and cultural references, 
22; geographical distribution, 
22; history, 22; species descrip- 
tion, 19; synonymy, 22; use, 22, 

Coffea triflora, 22 

Coffea triflora fragrans, 19 

Coffea 'vulgaris, 34 

Coffea Wightiana, 11, 15, 22; bibli- 
ography, 17; common name, 17; 
diagnostic characters, 17; eco- 
nomic and cultural references, 
17; geographical distribution, 
17; history, 17; species descrip- 
tion, 15 ; use, 17, 22, 25 

Coffea Zanguebaria, 13, 28, 68; bib- 
liography, 70; common name, 
68; diagnostic characters, 68; 
economic and cultural refer- 
ences, 70; geographical distri- 
bution, . 68 ; history, 68 ; species 
description, 68 ; synonymy, 68 ; 
use, 70 

Coffee, adulteration, 130-156; bibli- 
ography {see each species of 
Coffea and each topic for special 
references); blending, 151; bo- 
gus coffee, 131-133; caffeine, 41, 
43, 163, 167, 180, 185; as a cere- 
bro-spinal stimulant, 42; chemi- 
cal tests for purit}' of ground 
coffee, 144 ; chemistry of the 
bean (with bibliography), 157- 
181 ; chronological table for in- 
troduction into various countries, 
plate 44, facing p. 106; coffee- 
houses, 222-236; commercial 
terms, iii; common names {see 
each species and common name 
in index list) ; common names 
of adulterants, 136-140; con- 
sumption, 7, 35-37, 118, 186; de- 
tection of adulterants, 140; as di- 
uresis, 42; Eastern dialect terms, 
220; essence, 182; ethnolog}^, 
213-221; extract, 182; grades, 
in; formulas for preparation 
of beverage, 183-185 ; effect of, 
41-43, 186; grafting, 82; history, 
35"39 (-^^^ chronological table, 
Plate 44, facing p. 106; also in- 
dividual species discussion) ; of 
coffee-houses, 222-236; indige- 
nous distribution, 109 ; importa- 
tion ports, 123; leaf, 39; map, 
122; in medicine, 41; nematode 



Mi 



INDEX 



Injuiy, 82 ; microscopic tests for 
purity of ground coffee, 146 ; 
oil, 40; physical tests for 
purity of ground coffee, 143 ; 
plant substitutes, 136-140; prep- 
aration, for commerce, 124- 
129; for table beverage, 183- 
185; production, 118-123; pulp, 
40; rain injury, 83; roast- 
ing, 128, 183; scientific botanical 
names of adulterants, 136-140; 
as a stimulant, 41-43 ; sophistica- 
tion and substitution, 130-156; 
table coffees (explanation of 
terms applied and preparation 
formulas), 182-186; tests, 140- 
155; vegetable adulterants, 136- 
140; wood, 40 

Coffee Distribution (native) of eco- 
nomic species, 109 

Coffee-Growing Countries, 111-118 

CoflFee-Houses, in Arabia, 222; in 
Egypt, 223 ; in Persia and Syria, 
223 ; in Turkey, 223 ; in Russia, 
224; in Greece, 225; in Italy, 
225; in France, 225; in Holland, 
226 ; in Germany and Austria, 
226; in England, 227; in United 
States, 230-236 

Coffee-Substitutes, in U. S,, 134; in 
Europe, 135 

Coho, 36 

Cojulpeque Coffee, 112 

Cola acuminata, 165, 187, 190-192 

Cola nut, 191 

Colima Coffee, 113 

Colombian Coffee, in 

Commercial coffee terms, in 

Common coffee, 34 

Common grades of coffee, in 

Common names of plant products 
used as adulterants, 136-140 

Consumption of coffee, 7, 35-37, 118, 
186 

Copernicia cerifera, 195, 198, 199 

Cordoba Coffee, 113 

Coro Coffee, 112 

Costa Rican Coffee, 112 

Coussarea hydrangeaefolia, 187 

Creole Coffee, 182 

Cuban Coffee, 116 

Cumin seeds, 37 

Cyperus esculentus, 135 

Datal Kaffee, 135 
Demarara Coffee, 118 



Demi-tasse de cafe, 182 

Detection of Sophistications, 140-155 

Deutscher Coffee, 135 

Dominica Coffee, 116 

Domkaffee, 135 

Drinket, 134 

Dutch Coffee, 182 

Dutch East Indian Coffee, 113 

Economic discussion, 109 

Economic species, n, 109 

Ecuadorian Coffee, 112 

Ethnology, 213-221 

Eucojfea, 11, 15 

European Adulterated Coffees, 135 

Feigenkaffee, 135 

Figine, 135 

Fingians, 37 

Fischer Mills Fresh Roasted Malt 

Coffee, 134 
Franzosischer Kaffee, 135 
French Coffee, 182 
Frucht Kaffee, 135 
Fouta, 37 

Gairing's Grains of Health, 134 

Gas-pichcha, 22 

German Soda Coffee, 135 

Gischr, 36 

Golden Drop Coffee, 58 

Gourou, 191 

Grain-0, 134 

Guadeloupe Coffee, 116 

Guano, 40, 166 

Guarana, 165, 195 

Guatemala Coffee, 112 

Guayaquil Coffee, 112 

Haitian Coffee, 116 

Harrar Coffee, 114 

Hawaiian Coffee, 116 

Hemileia vasfatrix, 39, 52, 79, 92 

Herva, 201 

Hevea brasiliensis, 92 

Hexepta axillaris, 68 ; racemosa, 27 

Highland Coffee, 30 

History of Coffee, 35-39; of coffee- 
houses, 222-236 

Homeopathischer Gesundheitskaffee, 
135 

Huanuco Coffee, 112 

Hummann, 37 

Hygienischer Nahrkaffee, 135 

Ilex paraguariensis, 165, 201 ; vari- 
ous species, 200-209; 'uomitoria, 
205 



INDEX 



243 



Indian Coffee, 114 
Instant Postum, 134 
Inyambane Coffee, 72 

Jaffee, 134 

Jamaica Coffee, 116 

Jamaika Kaffee, 135 

Java and Dutch East Indian Coffee, 

113 
Jesuit's Tea, 201 

Kaddumallikai, 17 

Kadhu, 214 

Kaffee Hag, 134 

Kahwah, 35, 213 

Kahwahs, 222 

Kahwe, 40 

Kanon, 135 

Kat, 36 

Kath-jahi, 25 

Kathu, 214 

Kentucky Coffee, 134 

Kischer, 36 

Kisher, 40 

Kneipp Malt Coffee, 134 

Ko-Loc, 134 

Kraft Kaffee, 135 

Lachnostoma, 11, 14, 97; khasiana, 

97. 103 
La Guayra Coffee, 112 
Liberian Coffee, 79, 90, 92, 130 
Liberian-Ceylon Coffee, 114 
Liberian Giant Coffee, 78 
Liberian Rio, iii 
Luzon Coffee, 116 

Malabar Coffee, 114 

Maleberry (or Peaberry) Coffee, 

113 
Malto Kaffee, 135 
Manila Coffee, 116 
Maracaibo Coffee, 112 
Maragogipe Coffee, 34, 50 
Martinique Coffee, 116 
Mate, 200 

Melilotin Kaffee, 135 
Mexican Coffee, 113; Jack, 113; 

Mocha, 113 
Minute Brew, 134 
Mocha Coffee, 34, 114, 128 
Mogdad Kaffee, 135 
Moka Coffee, 34 
Mokara, 135 
Monrovian Coffee, 78 
Muriabambe, 40, 220 
Mysore Coffee, 114 



Nalknad Coffee, 34 

Native Coffee, 30, 114 

Neger Kaffee, 135 

New Era Hygienic Coffee, 134 

Oaxaco Coffee, 113 
Old Grist Mill Entire Wheat Coffee, 
134 

Papaver somniferum, 157, 160 

Para Rubber, 92 

Paraguay Tea, 200 

Parkia ajricana, 135; higlohosa, 135 

Paulli?iia Ciipana, 165, 195, 196, 197 

Peaberry Coffee, 34, 113 (pea- or 
maleberry) 

Peruvian Coffees, 112 

Philippine Coffee, 116 

Philology, 213-221 

Piper nigrum, 165 

Plantation Coffee, 114 

Plantation Treatment of Coffee in 
Arabia, 124; in West Indies, 
Mexico, Central America, and 
parts of Brazil, 124-127 

Porto Rican Coffee, 116 

Postum, 134 

Preparation for commerce, 124 

Production in Arabia, 114; Austra- 
lia, 118; Central America, 112; 
Ceylon, 114; Hawaiian Is., 116; 
India, 114; Java, 113; Mexico. 
113; Philippine Is., 116; South 
America, 111-112; West Indies, 
116 

Purity Tests, 140-155 

Qischr, 36 
Quahwe, 218 
Quat, 36 

Ralston Cereal Coffee, 134 

Rations Coffee, 135 

Raw Bean Coffee Tests, 140 

Red Bean Santos, iii 

Rio Coffee, iii, 120 

Rio-Nunez Coffee, 30, 92 

Roasted Bean Coffee Tests, 142 

Roasted and Ground Coffee Tests, 
physical, 142; chemical analysis, 
144; microscopic tests, 145 

Robusta Coffee, 92, 130 

Rudgea racemosa, 27 

Russian Coffee, 183 

Saladinkaffee, 135 

San Domingo Coffee, 116 



H4- 



INDEX 



Santos Coffee, iii, 120 

Savanilla Coffee, iii 

Schwedische Kontinental Kaffee, 

135 

Scientific names of Vegetable Adul- 
terants of coffee, 136-140 

Senoussi Coffee, 93 

Shredded Cereal, 134 

Sierra Leone Coffee, 30 

Sonsonate Coffee, 113 

South American Coffee, 111-112 

St. Bartholomew's Tea, 201 

Stephanie Kaffee, 135 

Sudan Kaffee, 135 

Sultana Coffee, 183 

Surinam Coffee, 118 

Tea, 187-189 

Tehama Coffee, 114 

Tepic Coffee, 113 

Terms used in Commercial Classifi- 
cation, 111-118 

Tests for Adulterants, 140-155 

T/iea assamica, 187; sinensis, 157, 
165, 187-189 

Theobroma Cacao, 165, 191, 193 

Turkish Coffee, 183 



Ungarischer Kaffee, 135 
Upland Coffee, 30 
U. S. Adulterated Coffees, 134 
U. S. Coffee Substitutes and their 
composition, 131-133 

Vegetable Adulterants of coffee, 

136-140 
Venezuelan Coffee, 112 
Vicia seedlings, 166 
Victorian Coffee, 11 1 
Vienna Coffee, 183 

Wax Palm, 195 

West Indian Coffee, 116 

Wholesale Distributor's Manipula- 
tion of Coffee in U, S., 127-128; 
in Europe, 129 

Wild Coffee, 30 

Wild Congo Coffee, 92 

Wine, 38 

Yungas Coffee, 112 

Zamboango Coffee, 116 
Zanzibar Coffee, 68